According to some Christian outlooks we were made for another world. Perhaps, rather, we were made for this world to recreate, reclaim, redeem, and renew unto God's future aspiration by the power of His Spirit. - R.E. Slater
Our eschatological ethos is to love. To stand with those who are oppressed. To stand against those who are oppressing. It is that simple. Love is our only calling and Christian Hope. - R.E. Slater
Secularization theory has been massively falsified. We don't live in an age of secularity. We live in an age of explosive, pervasive religiosity... an age of religious pluralism. - Peter L. Berger
Exploring the edge of life and faith in a post-everything world. - Todd Littleton
I don't need another reason to believe, your love is all around for me to see. – anon
Thou art our need; and in giving us more of thyself thou givest us all. - Khalil Gibran, Prayer XXIII
Be careful what you pretend to be. You become what you pretend to be. - Kurt Vonnegut
Religious beliefs, far from being primary, are often shaped and adjusted by our social goals. - Jim Forest
People, even more than things, need to be restored, renewed, revived, reclaimed, and redeemed; never throw out anyone. – anon
Certainly God's love has made fools of us all. - R.E. Slater
An apocalyptic Christian faith doesn't wait for Jesus to come, but for Jesus to become in our midst. - R.E. Slater
Christian belief in God begins with the cross and resurrection of Jesus, not with rational apologetics. - Eberhard Jüngel, Jürgen Moltmann
Our knowledge of God is through the 'I-Thou' encounter, not in finding God at the end of a syllogism or argument. There is a grave danger in any Christian treatment of God as an object. The God of Jesus Christ and Scripture is irreducibly subject and never made as an object, a force, a power, or a principle that can be manipulated. - Emil Brunner
Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh means "I will be that who I have yet to become." - God (Ex 3.14)
Our job is to love others without stopping to inquire whether or not they are worthy. - Thomas Merton
The church is God's world-changing social experiment of bringing unlikes and differents to the Eucharist/Communion table to share life with one another as a new kind of family. When this happens we show to the world what love, justice, peace, reconciliation, and life together is designed by God to be. The church is God's show-and-tell for the world to see how God wants us to live as a blended, global, polypluralistic family united with one will, by one Lord, and baptized by one Spirit. – anon
The cross that is planted at the heart of the history of the world cannot be uprooted. - Jacques Ellul
The Unity in whose loving presence the universe unfolds is inside each person as a call to welcome the stranger, protect animals and the earth, respect the dignity of each person, think new thoughts, and help bring about ecological civilizations. - John Cobb & Farhan A. Shah
If you board the wrong train it is of no use running along the corridors of the train in the other direction. - Dietrich Bonhoeffer
God's justice is restorative rather than punitive; His discipline is merciful rather than punishing; His power is made perfect in weakness; and His grace is sufficient for all. – anon
Our little [biblical] systems have their day; they have their day and cease to be. They are but broken lights of Thee, and Thou, O God art more than they. - Alfred Lord Tennyson
We can’t control God; God is uncontrollable. God can’t control us; God’s love is uncontrolling! - Thomas Jay Oord
Life in perspective but always in process... as we are relational beings in process to one another so life events are in process in relation to each event... as God is to Self, is to world, is to us... like Father, like sons and daughters, like events... life in process yet always in perspective. - R.E. Slater
Christian humanism is the belief that human freedom, individual conscience, and unencumbered rational inquiry are compatible with the practice of Christianity or even intrinsic in its doctrine. It represents a philosophical union of Christian faith and classical humanist principles. - Scott Postma
It is never wise to have a self-appointed religious institution determine a nation's moral code. The opportunities for moral compromise and failure are high; the moral codes and creeds
assuredly racist, discriminatory, or subjectively and religiously defined; and the pronouncement of inhumanitarian political objectives quite predictable. - R.E. Slater

Thursday, February 6, 2014

Imagining Miracles and A Brotherhood of Man

The word "miracle" seems to me to be a term that is both dissembling and ambiguous.... It seems to give a false impression or misleading appearance to the real reality or truth of an event or circumstance. Used by many, it is meant to put on the appearance of a truth, resembling something that normally wouldn't happen, and occurring in a fashion that is abnormal or non-normative. And by ambiguous is meant to also give a false or misleading appearance to something concealing the real nature of motives, thoughts, presence, or pretense, of a speech or act. One that contains several meanings or interpretations but is difficult to comprehend, perhaps distinguish, or lacking the necessary clarity to the observers around, many times passing unnoticed to the general public. A public that is at all times skeptical and unbelieving.

In common parlance, it refers to an observation of a non-normative event into a distinctly meaningful interpretation for an individual, or group of individuals, who awaken to a truth or reality previously unseen through an unusual occurrence that gives spiritual definition and meaning to further acts and speech. To spiritually enliven one's life giving to it shape and definition that previously wasn't there before. Sometimes to one's error and regret, and more often to one's benefit as well as those about.

So then, in this postmodern age of science and skepticism how are we to think of the word miracle in connection to the biblical miracles of the Bible? At once the term "miracle" seems to be immediately at odds with the scientific method's pursuit for verifiability, evidentiary examination, and confirmatory proof. Without the ability to replicate a "miraculous" event or occurrence the claimed "miracle" is considered doubtful and held in disregard until proven true. Thus, it is considered suspect and non-normative of the everyday "facts" of life as we think we understand them. On the opposing side, those wishing to see a miracle will, whether it is there or not, driven as they are by the delusion to believe or interpret an event that is seems unexplainable (see "Criticisms" in the Wiki article at the end of this post):

In psychology and cognitive scienceconfirmation bias is a tendency to search for or interpret
new information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions, and avoids information and
interpretations that contradict prior beliefs. It is a type of  cognitive bias and represents an error
of inductive inferenceor is a form of selection bias toward confirmation of the hypothesis under
study, or disconfirmation of an alternative hypothesis. Confirmation bias is of interest in the
teaching of critical thinking, as the skill is misused if rigorous critical scrutiny is applied only
to evidence that challenges  a preconceived idea, but not to evidence that supports it.[18] 

As example, I think of a woman's medical discussion on NPR who was considered become demonic until later discovering her brain's physiology was deficient a specific chemistry balance (A Young Reporter Chronicles her 'Brain on Fire.' November 14, 2012, NPR).

And in theological terms - especially in light of the truths of evolutionary creationism and relational process theology as discussed here on this blog - the term miracle may give the false impression of a God who is set wholly apart from us. Who is outside of our sphere of reality but then comes to engage our world on an intermittent, temporary basis to interrupt this world's natural processes, flow, and rhythm, as He had previous set them. Who does something unusual that we notice before leaving us again to suffer the affects of our sin and evil alone.

At once we misunderstand the idea of miracle by forcing it into the molds of both scientific rationalism and theological deism. Which should indicate that it is we, ourselves, who are the problem here, and not the idea in itself. We have forced a good biblical concept into the modes of our overly-rationalistic worldviews to become false interpreters, or witnesses, to the every day, extremely normative, God-centered events in our everyday lives. Perhaps we interpret these too literally. Perhaps too casually or indiscriminately. Perhaps demanding it be read as we think the Bible portrays it (I think of the 2014 film of Noah as popularly envisaged by Russell Crowe's latest film). Disconnecting the theme or concept to the extant biblical movement surrounding a passage within its covenantal time, while on the other hand neglecting to do the hard work of interpretation in preference to our imaginations of what we think the Bible says or doesn't say.

For example, the era of the church gives witness to two biblical constructions that were present in the older covenantal times periods of the Bible but not yet enacted historically - that of Jesus' incarnation and resurrection. As a flesh-and-blood event that was unexpected in Adam and Eve's day. And Abraham's. And  Moses. And even in Israel's day (which is why Jesus was such a surprise to Israel's astute religious establishment). But upon the backwards glance becomes readily apparent when seen through each covenantal period's redemptive typologies and parallelisms. Meaning, that God was purposely at work effecting salvation to His people, and to the world of man at large (think Melchizedek, among others). So that when Christ's incarnation and resurrection actually did happen historically it launched the new ecclesiastical Age of the Church (better thought of as the Age of the Spirit). And with it the beginning of the end of the old creation, and the start of a new creation, that would usurp all predecessors like yeast to leaven, or a gnat-sized mustard seed to a mighty tree, or new fermenting wine to old wine skins bursting them asunder. Even as God's heavenly kingdom broke out upon man's many kingdoms through the incarnate/resurrected gospel of His Son. Things that were non-normative then would now become normative, unhidden, noticeable and seen.

Which brings us to the idea of biblical miracles. In essence, however they are understood, they are pointers to the larger idea that God is with us. That He is present with us. That His mighty hand of redemption is there to redeem and save. As can be seen in each of its telling in the Bible through the many lives of His people - both wicked and professing. None are beyond the hand of God, nor outside His boundless compassion and mercy. God is the God of every man, and not just that of Israel's, or the church's, or the elect and predestined as misunderstood by Calvinism's derelict doctrine. Nay He is the God to all peoples. Both to the wicked and to the righteous. For good or for ill as we respond to His goodness and love in denial or acclaim.

So then, what is meant by this? Should we expect to see a God who is intimately present and involved in the processes of this world? Even through its creation is nowadays regarded scientifically as formed by random chance and chaotic evolution eventuating into the birthing of the homo sapien race? The backwards glance tells us yes. That God has worked His will upon His creation over all things seen and unseen by the power of His Spirit however it has occurred. Whether we understand it or not. That through His Son - which the theologian would describe as the midpoint of redemptive history - all things move and have their being to the formation of this godly event of creation. And that it is at this spiritual midpoint of history that we even now are moving towards an expansion of God's spiritual kingdom across all nations and lives, events and acts. That through His church will come the works of His Spirit into the hearts of desperate people without hope or love, truth or justice. That this Spirit of God will warp all time and space into the furthering of God's will upon this earth. And that with His rejection shall also come the harsher realities of sin's evil and evil's sin should we deny its presence in our lives - a presence of love, mercy, forgiveness, and peace with all men.

Hence, by the word miracle is not meant - at least in my mind - that God comes into our desperate lives to resurrect them willy-nilly.... Nay, He has been in our lives all along enacting this very thing. We just haven't noticed it. Nor have we recognized His hand at work in the many daily things that have protected our spirits, if not our very lives, against the sin and evil we suffer under. Perhaps we have been given hardship to humble us. To cause us to look away from ourselves, or from others, as fleshly saviours to the One who would be our Sovereign and Saviour. Perhaps we have suffered because of our sin and must look to the One who has taken our sin upon Himself and has given to us freedom and release that we thought wasn't there until beholding Jesus in His incarnated glory.

The miracle of God is the one that releases us from our sin, and from the hands of sinful man - if not by death, than by freedom from those who would harm our spirits and inner man to the lamentation of soul and mind, heart and body. To see in the life about us that we have been empowered by a God who loves us to defeat the sin and evil we experience or see in ourselves and in the lives of others. To bring justice where no justice is. To bring hope and salvation where none existed. To resurrect the lives of those dead about us to the Living Waters at the Well of the Lord. To speak peace and love and mercy in the strength and power of the Holy Spirit.

These alone are greater miracles than any miracle of the Bible. Did not Jesus say the same, "...which is easier to say, 'Your sins are forgiven,' or to say, 'Rise up and walk'?"
  1. Matthew 9:5
    For which is easier, to say, ‘Your sins are forgiven,’ or to say, ‘Rise and walk’?
    Matthew 9:4-6 (in Context) Matthew 9 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations
  2. Mark 2:9
    Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, ‘Your sins are forgiven,’ or to say, ‘Rise, take up your bed and walk’?
    Mark 2:8-10 (in Context) Mark 2 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations
  3. Luke 5:23
    Which is easier, to say, ‘Your sins are forgiven you,’ or to say, ‘Rise and walk’?
    Luke 5:22-24 (in Context) Luke 5 (Whole Chapter) Other Translations
Let not the word "miracle" confound us in the popular banter of its remit or surmise but allow it to breathe into us God's peace and redemptive work. This is the fuller meaning of the term. Not how it occurred. Or by what method, time, or space. It is miraculous no less and doesn't require us to effect the seeming impossible to experience or prove the power of the Spirit of the Lord. God's power is everywhere about. It is a sublime power known only to those who live in its streams and mighty waters. It cannot be proven by mere occurrence and happenstance because it is there already. We just haven't seen it because we haven't thought to see it. To take the backwards glance in our lives. To use it. Believe it. Or move within it. Until now. Until this day. This hour. Through every word spoken from our hearts, minds, and mouths. To every act committed by our hands, feet, and will. Like John Lennon once said, "Let it be." Or better yet, "Imagine" a world of possibilities and opportunities. A world of miracles. A world where a new kingdom creation is spreading out and overtaking an older world of fleshly desire and sin.

R.E. Slater
February 6, 2014

John Lennon - Imagine HD

imagine, "a brotherhood of man"

* * * * * * * * *


We cannot fit the resurrection of Jesus into a modern materialist
worldview of 18th century rationalism and enlightenment;

Nor can we not the incarnation and life of Jesus into this
modern materialist worldview either.

"Let’s give up the world miracle because the word "miracle" comes to us now in our culture from that Epicurean or deist worldview which envisages a God who is outside the process and occasionally reaches in and does something funny and then pushes off again.

Now, that is not what the New Testament is talking about. So when people say can we believe in miracles I say no, because the word miracle gives us this sense of a normally absent God sometimes reaching in, that’s not the God of the Bible.

What we have, and I talk about this in Simply Jesus, is the launching of space, time, and matter in a new mode. And it’s not discontinuous with our present space, time, and matter, but this is God’s new creation.

And the thing about what we call the miracles, is not… "Wow! there seem to be radical abnormalities within the old world." No... the point is that these are the things that are starting to be normal in the new world which we see close up and personal with Jesus and then which, through the ministry of the gospel thereafter, start to happen in different ways in the wider world.

It’s about the launching of new creation. Not about an invasion [backwards] into the old creation."

- N.T. Wright, Simply Jesus

* * * * * * * * *

- Wikipedia: Miracle

A miracle is an event not ascribable to human power or the laws of nature and consequently attributed to a supernatural, especially divine, agency.[1] Such an event may be attributed to a miracle worker, saint, or religious leader. A miracle is sometimes thought of as a perceptible interruption of the laws of nature. Others suggest that God may work with the laws of nature to perform what are considered miracles.[2] Theologians say that, with divine providence, God regularly works through created nature yet is free to work without, above, or against it as well.[3]

The word "miracle" is often used to characterise any beneficial event that is statistically unlikely but not contrary to the laws of nature, such as surviving a natural disaster, or simply a "wonderful" occurrence, regardless of likelihood, such as a birth. Other miracles might be: survival of an illness diagnosed as terminal, escaping a life-threatening situation or 'beating the odds'. Some coincidences may be seen as miracles.[4]

A miracle is sometimes thought of as a perceptible interruption of the laws of nature. Others suggest that God may work with the laws of nature to perform what people see as miracles.[2] Some theologians say that, with divine providence, God regularly works through created nature yet is free to work without, above, or against it as well.[3]

* * * * * * * * *

Divine Synchronicity:
What Does It Mean for Christianity?

The Concept of Synchronicity
Part 2 of 2

Continued from the article, LOST in Purgatory, Part 1 of 2
August 16, 2011

A significant concept that was not readily apparent on the TV show LOST until the flash forwards and flash sideways episodes began appearing in the third and fourth seasons was the concept of synchronicity. When reviewing my notes from several years back I believe that some of what was being implied through the concept of purgatory discussed in part one above, could easily fall into this metaphysical idea here, where, during our lifetimes, and quite unknown to us (if at all), coincidences based upon a-causal events may interlope (or intersect) within our lives in phenomenal ways. Some Christians call these events miracles, others an "intervention of grace," where non-normative events, ideas or people may enter into our lives in either profound or non-significant ways.

Most philosophers, psychologists and physicists, regard synchronicity as an extremely rare event (as initially conceived), but I am more or less of the opinion that synchronicity is a very common, normative event at work at all times in everyone's lives and that we are simply unaware of it, just like we are unaware of the act of breathing, or thinking, or behaving, or acting, or passing through time for most of our lives. It is an all-pervasive fact that we only may rarely glimpse like the tip of an iceberg. This has become known as joined collective dynamic very similar to the physics term of quantum mechanics, but operative on a metaphysical level that occasionally intersects with our physical, symbolic world, and with others who cross-sect our daily routines sometime in life.

Taking this concept one step farther, I would entertain the idea that the operating mechanism behind the concept of synchronicity is that of the Holy Spirit infilling (or, infusing) all creation to bring it into the very plans and purposes of the Godhead. And it is through this metaphysical idea of joined collective dynamic that God interweaves the lives of people with one another through the work of His Spirit to bring about both His purposes as well as our spiritual well being. Not our physical well being, but our spiritual well being (some would call it blessedness to our lives). So that, regardless of our experiences in this life under the reign of sin, death, hatred, evil, wickedness, brokenness, abandonment, dissertion, betrayal, and dysfunctionalism and so on; but through all of this, God is weaving a redemptive tapestry predicated upon His purposes of redemption, reconciliation, wholeness, and healing. Whether we understand this or not. Whether we see this or not. Whether we acknowledge this or not. It is synchronous.

So then, we are given this time to make amends, to recover, to process our existence into a meaningful existence at one with the union of God's purposes. To allow what order can be made of it before we are removed from this life. And in a sense, this life of ours is our time of purgatory (one which emergent Christians have lately been calling our "heaven on earth" or a "hell on earth": sic, Rob Bell's book, Love Wins). Now I'm sure this is not what Bell had in mind, but as long as we're thinking through the concept of purgatory, we could very easily align it into this life rather than into a future expectation that is un-discovered (or, un-stated) in the Bible, just like Bell is aligning acts of heaven and hell into this life (otherwise known as Inaugural Kingdom Eschatology).

Consequently, though there may be a purgatory-like existence into heaven's entrance, (or in fact, into hell's entrance) - if we wish to allow for a type of universalism into this discussion - but I am not of the opinion that it is either necessary or biblical. For me, this meager life that we live will contain all those facets of purgatory, heaven and hell, to be sufficient for the redemptive purposes of God of establishing a creative order of blessedness. He does not need to extend our agonies nor our pains yet another second beyond this, our lifetimes. He will have worked out his purposes in our lives sufficiently despite evil, the devil, this sinful world, and ourselves, to be satisfied with its culminating end (which is a good working definition of Sovereignty). And the true fact is - one that should cause fear and trembling in our souls - is that we must not allow even one more breath or life-event to pass living separate from God's grace, love, and care in our lives!

For like the survivors on the mythical island of LOST we may be indeterminately and immediately snatched away by death once our purpose of existence has been completed. Should those purposes have striven towards wickedness and sin, towards striving against God, towards hatred and creating a hell for those around us, than we should not expect anything less than what we have brought into the lives of those whom we have harmed. And if, as Christians believers, we continue to seek ungodly and wicked demonstrations of harsh judgments upon both innocents and the true seekers of God alike, we too should expect nothing less than a judgment upon our hearts (known as the bema seat of God in Scriptures). There will be tears and agonies, vexations and the gnashing of teeth, on both sides of heaven and hell, but in the end God shall rule as He now rules in a broken, mis-shapened world. So then repent and be at peace.

RE Slater
August 17, 2011


* * * * * * * * *

Diagram illustrating concept of synchronicity by CG Jung

"The temporally coincident occurrences of acausal events."
- Carl Jung


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Synchronicity is the experience of two or more events as meaningfully related, where they are unlikely to be causally related. The subject sees it as a meaningful coincidence, although the events need not be exactly simultaneous in time. The concept of synchronicity was first described by Carl Gustav Jung, a Swiss psychologist, in the 1920s.[1]

The concept does not question, or compete with, the notion of causality. Instead, it maintains that just as events may be connected by a causal line, they may also be connected by meaning. A grouping of events by meaning need not have an explanation in terms of cause and effect.

In addition to Jung, Arthur Koestler wrote extensively on synchronicity in The Roots of Coincidence.[2


The idea of synchronicity is that the conceptual relationship of minds, defined as the relationship between ideas, is intricately structured in its own logical way and gives rise to relationships that are not causal in nature. These relationships can manifest themselves as occurrences that are meaningfully related.

Synchronistic events reveal an underlying pattern, a conceptual framework that encompasses, but is larger than, any of the systems that display the synchronicity. The suggestion of a larger framework is essential to satisfy the definition of synchronicity as originally developed by Carl Gustav Jung.[3]

Jung coined the word to describe what he called "temporally coincident occurrences of acausal events." Jung variously described synchronicity as an "acausal connecting principle", "meaningful coincidence" and "acausal parallelism". Jung introduced the concept as early as the 1920s, but gave a full statement of it only in 1951 in an Eranos lecture[4] and in 1952, published a paper, Synchronizität als ein Prinzip akausaler Zusammenhänge (Synchronicity – An Acausal Connecting Principle),[5] in a volume with a related study by the physicist (and Nobel laureate) Wolfgang Pauli.[6]

It was a principle that Jung felt gave conclusive evidence for his concepts of archetypes and the collective unconscious,[7] in that it was descriptive of a governing dynamic that underlies the whole of human experience and history – social, emotional, psychological, and spiritual. Concurrent events that first appear to be coincidental but later turn out to be causally related are termed incoincident.

Jung believed that many experiences that are coincidences due to chance in terms of causality suggested the manifestation of parallel events or circumstances in terms of meaning, reflecting this governing dynamic.[8]

Even at Jung's presentation of his work on synchronicity in 1951 at an Eranos lecture, his ideas on synchronicity were evolving. Following discussions with both Albert Einstein and Wolfgang Pauli, Jung believed that there were parallels between synchronicity and aspects of relativity theory and quantum mechanics.[9] Jung was transfixed by the idea that life was not a series of random events but rather an expression of a deeper order, which he and Pauli referred to as Unus mundus. This deeper order led to the insights that a person was both embedded in an orderly framework and was the focus of that orderly framework and that the realisation of this was more than just an intellectual exercise, but also having elements of a spiritual awakening. From the religious perspective, synchronicity shares similar characteristics of an "intervention of grace". Jung also believed that in a person's life, synchronicity served a role similar to that of dreams, with the purpose of shifting a person's egocentric conscious thinking to greater wholeness.

A close associate of Jung, Marie-Louise von Franz, stated towards the end of her life that the concept of synchronicity must now be worked on by a new generation of researchers.[10] For example, in the years since the publication of Jung’s work on synchronicity, some writers largely sympathetic to Jung's approach have taken issue with certain aspects of his theory, including the question of how frequently synchronicity occurs.

One of Jung's favourite quotes on synchronicity was from Through the Looking-Glass by Lewis Carroll, in which the White Queen says to Alice: "It's a poor sort of memory that only works backwards".[11][12]'The rule is, jam to-morrow and jam yesterday – but never jam to-day.'
'It MUST come sometimes to "jam to-day,"' Alice objected.
'No, it can't,' said the Queen. 'It's jam every OTHER day: to-day isn't any OTHER day, you know.'
'I don't understand you,' said Alice. 'It's dreadfully confusing!'
'That's the effect of living backwards,' the Queen said kindly: 'it always makes one a little giddy at first--'
'Living backwards!' Alice repeated in great astonishment. 'I never heard of such a thing!'
'--but there's one great advantage in it, that one's memory works both ways.'
'I'm sure MINE only works one way,' Alice remarked. 'I can't remember things before they happen.'
'It's a poor sort of memory that only works backwards,' the Queen remarked.

The French writer Émile Deschamps claims in his memoirs that, in 1805, he was treated to some plum pudding by a stranger named Monsieur de Fontgibu. Ten years later, the writer encountered plum pudding on the menu of a Paris restaurant and wanted to order some, but the waiter told him that the last dish had already been served to another customer, who turned out to be de Fontgibu. Many years later, in 1832, Deschamps was at a dinner and once again ordered plum pudding. He recalled the earlier incident and told his friends that only de Fontgibu was missing to make the setting complete – and in the same instant, the now senile de Fontgibu entered the room.[13]

In his book Synchronicity (1952), Jung tells the following story as an example of a synchronistic event:
A young woman I was treating had, at a critical moment, a dream in which she was given a golden scarab. While she was telling me this dream, I sat with my back to the closed window. Suddenly I heard a noise behind me, like a gentle tapping. I turned round and saw a flying insect knocking against the window-pane from the outside. I opened the window and caught the creature in the air as it flew in. It was the nearest analogy to a golden scarab one finds in our latitudes, a scarabaeid beetle, the common rose-chafer (Cetonia aurata), which, contrary to its usual habits had evidently felt the urge to get into a dark room at this particular moment. I must admit that nothing like it ever happened to me before or since.[14]
Jung wrote, after describing some examples, "When coincidences pile up in this way, one cannot help being impressed by them – for the greater the number of terms in such a series, or the more unusual its character, the more improbable it becomes."[15]

In the book Thirty Years That Shook Physics – The Story of Quantum Theory (1966), George Gamow writes about Wolfgang Pauli, who was apparently considered a person particularly associated to Synchronicity Events. Gamow whimsically refers to 'The "Pauli effect", a mysterious phenomenon which is not, and probably never will, be understood on a purely materialistic basis. The following anecdote is told:
It is well known that theoretical physicists cannot handle experimental equipment; it breaks whenever they touch it. Pauli was such a good theoretical physicist that something usually broke in the lab whenever he merely stepped across the threshold. A mysterious event that did not seem at first to be connected with Pauli's presence once occurred in Professor J. Franck's laboratory in Göttingen. Early one afternoon, without apparent cause, a complicated apparatus for the study of atomic phenomena collapsed. Franck wrote humorously about this to Pauli at his Zürich address and, after some delay, received an answer in an envelope with a Danish stamp. Pauli wrote that he had gone to visit Bohr and at the time of the mishap in Franck's laboratory his train was stopped for a few minutes at the Göttingen railroad station. You may believe this anecdote or not, but there are many other observations concerning the reality of the Pauli Effect! [16]

Among some psychologists, Jung's works, such as The Interpretation of Nature and the Psyche, were received as problematic. Fritz Levi, in his 1952 review in Neue Schweizer Rundschau (New Swiss Observations), critiqued Jung's theory of synchronicity as vague in determinability of synchronistic events, saying that Jung never specifically explained his rejection of "magic causality" to which such an acausal principle as synchronicity would be related. He also questioned the theory's usefulness.[17]

In psychology and cognitive science, confirmation bias is a tendency to search for or interpret new information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions, and avoids information and interpretations that contradict prior beliefs. It is a type of cognitive bias and represents an error of inductive inference, or is a form of selection bias toward confirmation of the hypothesis under study, or disconfirmation of an alternative hypothesis. Confirmation bias is of interest in the teaching of critical thinking, as the skill is misused if rigorous critical scrutiny is applied only to evidence that challenges a preconceived idea, but not to evidence that supports it.[18]

Likewise, in psychology and sociology, the term apophenia is used for the apparent detection of a pattern or meaning, in what is actually random or meaningless data.[19] Skeptics, such as Robert Todd Carroll of the Skeptic's Dictionary, argue that the perception of synchronicity is better explained as apophenia. Primates use pattern detection in their form of intelligence,[20] and this can lead to erroneous identification of non-existent patterns. A famous example of this is the fact that human face recognition is so robust, and based on such a basic archetype (essentially two dots and a line contained in a circle), that human beings are very prone to identify faces in random data all through their environment, like the "man in the moon", or faces in wood grain, an example of the visual form of apophenia known as pareidolia.[21]

It has been asserted that Jung's analytical psychological theory of synchronicity is equal to intellectual intuition.[22]

Although some scientists[who?] see potential evidence of synchronicity in areas of research such as quantum theory, chaos theory, and fractal geometry, the concept is not testable by any current scientific method.

The concept of synchronicity is somewhat related to the concept of serendipity.

See also

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