We, and creation itself, actualize the possibilities of the God who sustains the world, towards becoming in the world in a fuller, more deeper way. - R.E. Slater

There is urgency in coming to see the world as a web of interrelated processes of which we are integral parts, so that all of our choices and actions have [consequential effects upon] the world around us. - Process Metaphysician Alfred North Whitehead

Kurt Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem says (i) all closed systems are unprovable within themselves and, that (ii) all open systems are rightly understood as incomplete. - R.E. Slater

The most true thing about you is what God has said to you in Christ, "You are My Beloved." - Tripp Fuller

The God among us is the God who refuses to be God without us, so great is God's Love. - Tripp Fuller

According to some Christian outlooks we were made for another world. Perhaps, rather, we were made for this world to recreate, reclaim, redeem, and renew unto God's future aspiration by the power of His Spirit. - R.E. Slater

Our eschatological ethos is to love. To stand with those who are oppressed. To stand against those who are oppressing. It is that simple. Love is our only calling and Christian Hope. - R.E. Slater

Secularization theory has been massively falsified. We don't live in an age of secularity. We live in an age of explosive, pervasive religiosity... an age of religious pluralism. - Peter L. Berger

Exploring the edge of life and faith in a post-everything world. - Todd Littleton

I don't need another reason to believe, your love is all around for me to see. – Anon

Thou art our need; and in giving us more of thyself thou givest us all. - Khalil Gibran, Prayer XXIII

Be careful what you pretend to be. You become what you pretend to be. - Kurt Vonnegut

Religious beliefs, far from being primary, are often shaped and adjusted by our social goals. - Jim Forest

People, even more than things, need to be restored, renewed, revived, reclaimed, and redeemed; never throw out anyone. – Anon

Certainly, God's love has made fools of us all. - R.E. Slater

An apocalyptic Christian faith doesn't wait for Jesus to come, but for Jesus to become in our midst. - R.E. Slater

Christian belief in God begins with the cross and resurrection of Jesus, not with rational apologetics. - Eberhard Jüngel, Jürgen Moltmann

Our knowledge of God is through the 'I-Thou' encounter, not in finding God at the end of a syllogism or argument. There is a grave danger in any Christian treatment of God as an object. The God of Jesus Christ and Scripture is irreducibly subject and never made as an object, a force, a power, or a principle that can be manipulated. - Emil Brunner

“Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh” means "I will be that who I have yet to become." - God (Ex 3.14) or, conversely, “I AM who I AM Becoming.”

Our job is to love others without stopping to inquire whether or not they are worthy. - Thomas Merton

The church is God's world-changing social experiment of bringing unlikes and differents to the Eucharist/Communion table to share life with one another as a new kind of family. When this happens, we show to the world what love, justice, peace, reconciliation, and life together is designed by God to be. The church is God's show-and-tell for the world to see how God wants us to live as a blended, global, polypluralistic family united with one will, by one Lord, and baptized by one Spirit. – Anon

The cross that is planted at the heart of the history of the world cannot be uprooted. - Jacques Ellul

The Unity in whose loving presence the universe unfolds is inside each person as a call to welcome the stranger, protect animals and the earth, respect the dignity of each person, think new thoughts, and help bring about ecological civilizations. - John Cobb & Farhan A. Shah

If you board the wrong train it is of no use running along the corridors of the train in the other direction. - Dietrich Bonhoeffer

God's justice is restorative rather than punitive; His discipline is merciful rather than punishing; His power is made perfect in weakness; and His grace is sufficient for all. – Anon

Our little [biblical] systems have their day; they have their day and cease to be. They are but broken lights of Thee, and Thou, O God art more than they. - Alfred Lord Tennyson

We can’t control God; God is uncontrollable. God can’t control us; God’s love is uncontrolling! - Thomas Jay Oord

Life in perspective but always in process... as we are relational beings in process to one another, so life events are in process in relation to each event... as God is to Self, is to world, is to us... like Father, like sons and daughters, like events... life in process yet always in perspective. - R.E. Slater

To promote societal transition to sustainable ways of living and a global society founded on a shared ethical framework which includes respect and care for the community of life, ecological integrity, universal human rights, respect for diversity, economic justice, democracy, and a culture of peace. - The Earth Charter Mission Statement

Christian humanism is the belief that human freedom, individual conscience, and unencumbered rational inquiry are compatible with the practice of Christianity or even intrinsic in its doctrine. It represents a philosophical union of Christian faith and classical humanist principles. - Scott Postma

It is never wise to have a self-appointed religious institution determine a nation's moral code. The opportunities for moral compromise and failure are high; the moral codes and creeds assuredly racist, discriminatory, or subjectively and religiously defined; and the pronouncement of inhumanitarian political objectives quite predictable. - R.E. Slater

God's love must both center and define the Christian faith and all religious or human faiths seeking human and ecological balance in worlds of subtraction, harm, tragedy, and evil. - R.E. Slater

Saturday, October 1, 2022

A Contemporary Understanding of the Bible - Part 2: Divine Inspiration

 


A Contemporary Understanding of the Bible
Part 2 - Divine Inspiration

Series Information

Since part one started a discussion of divine inspiration let's give it more of a formal flair so that we have several common basis between one another: my own and then what tradition has stated... which may not be two separate things. Like I said, I've extended the idea of divine inspiration to be both divine and always and to everyone. By doing this I've taken the specialness out of special revelation and have extended everywhere all-at-one to everyone and everything. Why can I say this?

First of all, its how a loving God works. Whatever God creates is created in love and with God's own special touch of individuality. Creation is a love-product set in motion by processual evolution. That is, an evolution that lumps along trying new things driven by its Creator towards uniqueness, evolvement, survivability, strife against things which don't work, and protecting itself against that which would undo it. 

Individuality works this way. But its intention has always been towards generative survivability and valuative co-existence. Death and sin have torn its original purposes apart... lending more obstacles to the path of divine creation.

Secondly, God placed God's very self into creation. Not in a pantheistic sense but in a pan-en-theistic sense. The first says God is the World and indistinguishable from the World. The second says, God is IN the World but MORE THAN the World. It is this second sense of panentheism that a process theology will drive towards.

Within this sense is the idea of an "Organic pan-relationalism" to all of Creation wherein the Creator has left his/her/it's DNA within the genomes of creation. So in a sense, as evolution evolves God is evolving with it as a living dynamic force within and alongside and throughout another living dynamic force. One is God and the other is Creation. God's love, freedom, individuality, relational sense of Self and Being, of evolving, of Becoming WITH creation and not simply as an indifferent, static divine force apart, over, transcendent to creation.




Panentheism leans into the immanent side of transcendence without denying transcendence it says such an idea is meaningless to creation though a convenient tool of the philosopher's and preachers. If God were all transcendent without being near then there is no reason for worship, communion in community, or life purpose. Creation's identity - our identity - has been removed from us and there is no value, no reason, no moorings to hold onto. We're on our own.


Note the difference of pan-en-theism vs. pan-theism: they are not the same.

Panentheism says we are not alone, or, on our own. Our Creator who could be far is near. God has shown this repeatedly to creation time and again. From it's instantiating act (for me, it's the Big Bang; for others, its Adam and Eve), to God's commune with a variety of people throughout the biblical page, to our own narratives (or, sadly, non-narratives), to Jesus God's-Self. Our Creator is near. God is immanent. God is the other side of far... God is WITH us. Which is what the name "Immanuel" is all about when describing Jesus as Immanuel who is with us who has come.

God is never away, vacationing, uninterested, far off, or having abandoned us. God is near, now, always and forever with us. Those times God is not is because we have not learned to see, to open ourselves up to the possibility that God loves me and is with me at all times in my life. The Christian faith is but a reflection of this reality. A process Christian faith says it is true and declares why this is true.


A process faith also recognizes that like God, creation is relational. Creatively relational. It is continually in the process of evolving, intermixing within itself, affecting itself and it's outcomes. Creation is an organic, evolving, relationality. The universe is ALIVE to itself and highly responsive within itself. If a hurricane destroys then by act of its relationality, a hurricane will affect all around it. Good acts or evil acts carry with them highly dynamic, creative acts of relationality with cause and effect upon itself.

Thus climate change. Thus the need for earth restoration. Thus the need for societal communions of peace and cooperation with one another. And thus my recommendation in the last post of the book, "We Really Do Need One Another" by Reuben Welch. A dynamic universe, an evolving world, or even a God whose Being is evolving with us in the becoming sense of Being, are realities.


More simply, we, as becoming beings, are also "evolving" in the many senses of evolving - physically, emotionally, reflectively, spiritually, etc. LIFE is about evolving. It is always moving and reacting, creating and affecting all else around it. From the lowly ant to the air around us. From our precious children to our wife and families nearby. Life is not one thing. It is not a static, unmoved thing. Life is always in an organic dynamism as it's Creator-God's Being is.

Surely, God's love never changes but God's experience of God's creation changes with it from moment to moment. Forget unhelpful words like divine sovereignty, divine impassability, divine determining and ruling. Remember more helpful words like divine love, divine nearness, divine compassion. God doesn't need to rule what God is a deeply embedded part of.

The Platonic doctrines of the church are philosophical arguments trying to make sense of good and evil. Such theodicies have distanced us to God's immanent, intrinsic, all-around-and-about energizing and embeddedness of God's Self everywhere, in every moment, in all conditions, times, inconveniences, etc. God is HERE. Amen!


And God being HERE... WITH us... makes all the difference to those of us struggling to hang on, survive one moment to the next, make sense of a senseless world. A world where harm and disaster are moments away. A processual panentheism simply says God is with us always, loves us always, and as a SPIRIT needs hands and feet, voices, minds, and hearts to minister God's grace and forgiveness to us. Without those people (and perhaps creation itself, as I can attest) God becomes the classic equation of a distant Platonic church philosophy, itself trying to make sense of the world about it.

Thus concludes Part 2 of divine inspiration. More simply stated. God is with us in love, compassion, faith, goodwill, justice (as it can be should others stand up around us for it), and very creation itself when not going mad by floods, winds, draughts, disease, and so forth. Divine inspiration is how one sees the world with God in it. It is neither special nor intended for special people. It is always special and always intended for all people - especially the unspecial people we neglect, ignore, or pass over in our minds and hearts and souls.

Part 3 will continue this discussion in a contemporary understanding of the bible...

Till then, Peace and Blessings be ever yours,

R.E. Slater
October 1, 2022




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Divine inspiration

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Divine inspiration is the concept of a supernatural force, typically a deity, causing a person or people to experience a creative desire. It has been a commonly reported aspect of many religions, for thousands of years. Divine inspiration is often closely tied to the concept of revelation, the belief in information being revealed or disclosed through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

Examples

Besides ancient mythology, the religious texts of traditions including HinduismJudaismChristianityIslamMormonism, and the Baháʼí Faith are all claimed to be divinely inspired to some degree.

  • Ancient Mesopotamia: In the Mesopotamian epic Atra-Hasis, the writer describes his work as dictated by the Goddess in a dream-vision.
  • Ancient Greece: The ancient Greek muses were said to be supernatural forces that gave artists their skill, while the Ancient Greek oracles were said to be subject to supernatural forces.
  • Hinduism: Music has historically been considered a medium through which performers can become a vehicle for divine inspiration.[1] The goddess Saraswati is also sometimes invoked for assistance with inspiration.[2]
  • Judaism and Christianity: Both religions claim Biblical inspiration for the parts of the Bible to which they adhere.
  • Islam: Muslims believe the Quran was verbally revealed by God to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel (Jibril),[3][4]

Plato’s manias

Plato distinguishes four kinds of inspiration or "mania" in the dialogue Phaedrus. The word "mania" signifying that a person is caught up in a state transcending the individual consciousness. In other dialogues, Plato identifies other manias besides the four given in Phaedrus. Anger, for example, is a mania because a man may become inspired by Mars in battle and perform deeds of superhuman strength. The four given in Phaedrus, however, are called Divine as they are the inspirations which perfect the soul.[5]

  1. Poetic or Musical, inspired by The Muses, brings the disordered parts of the soul into harmony.
  2. Telestic, inspired by Dionysus, purifies the soul and returns it to its ideal state of perfection and wholeness.
  3. Prophetic, inspired by Apollo, concentrates the soul to a unity.
  4. Amatory, inspired by Eros, conjoins the unified soul to the gods and to intelligible Beauty, effecting divine union.

See also

References

  1. ^ Sullivan, Bruce M. (1997). Historical Dictionary of Hinduism. Scarecrow Press. p. 143. ISBN 9780810833272.
  2. ^ Asiatic Researches at Google Books, - History and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences and Literature of Asia, Volume 3, London, pages 272-273
  3. ^ Lambert, Gray (2013). The Leaders Are Coming!. WestBow Press. p. 287. ISBN 9781449760137.
  4. ^ Roy H. Williams; Michael R. Drew (2012). Pendulum: How Past Generations Shape Our Present and Predict Our Future. Vanguard Press. p. 143. ISBN 9781593157067.
  5. ^ Shrine of Wisdom, "Plato and the Four Inspirations", in 3 parts, Vol 29 & 30 (1926), Vol 31 (1927)


* * * * * *


Biblical inspiration

Rembrandt's The Evangelist Matthew Inspired by an Angel (1661)

Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology that the human writers and canonizers of the Bible were led by God with the result that their writings may be designated in some sense the word of God.[1] This belief is traditionally associated with concepts of the biblical infallibility and the internal consistency of the Bible.[2]

Etymology

The word "inspiration" comes from the Latin noun inspiratio and from the verb inspirare. Inspirare is a compound term resulting from the Latin prefix in (inside, into) and the verb spirare (to breathe). (See inspiro.) Inspirare meant originally "to blow into", as for example in the sentence of the Roman poet Ovid: "conchae [...] sonanti inspirare iubet"[3] ("he orders to blow into the resonant [...] shell"). In classic Roman times, inspirare had already come to mean "to breathe deeply" and assumed also the figurative sense of "to instill [something] in the heart or in the mind of someone".

When Jerome translated the Greek text of the Bible into the language of the common people of Latium (the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome is located; see Vulgate), he translated the Greek theopneustos as divinitus inspirata ("divinely breathed into").[4] In Christian theology, the Latin word inspirare was already used by some Church Fathers in the first centuries to translate the Greek term pnéo.

The Church Fathers often referred to writings other than the documents that formed or would form the biblical canon as "inspired".[5] Some modern English translations opt for "God-breathed" (NIV) or "breathed out by God" (ESV) and avoid "inspiration" altogether, since its most literal meaning (and etymology), unlike its Latin root, leans toward breathing out instead of breathing in. The -tos ending in the Greek theopneustos also designates a passive construct whereby the subject God is breathing out the object (scripture).

Writers' internal claims

At 2 Tim 3:16-17 (NRSV), the Bible alleges that "All scripture is inspired by God and is useful for teaching" etc. Others offer an alternative reading for the passage; for example, theologian C. H. Dodd suggests that it "is probably to be rendered" as: "Every inspired Scripture is also useful".[6] With regard to misplacing the "is", Daniel B. Wallace calls this alternative "probably not the best translation."[7]

Evangelical viewpoint

Evangelicals view the Bible as superintended by the Holy Spirit, preserving the writers' works from error without eliminating their specific concerns, situation, or style.[8] This divine involvement, they say, allowed the biblical writers to communicate without corrupting God's own message both to the immediate recipients of the writings and to those who would come after. Some Evangelicals have labelled the conservative or traditional view as "verbal, plenary inspiration of the original manuscripts", by which they mean that each word (not just the overarching ideas or concepts) was meaningfully chosen under the superintendence of God.[9]

Evangelicals acknowledge the existence of textual variations between biblical accounts of apparently identical events and speeches. They see these as complementary, not contradictory, and explain them as the differing viewpoints of different writers. For instance, the Gospel of Matthew was intended to communicate the Gospel to Jews, the Gospel of Luke to Greeks, and the Gospel of Mark to Romans. Evangelical apologists such as John W. Haley in his book Alleged Discrepancies in the Bible[10] and Norman Geisler in When Critics Ask[11] have proposed answers to hundreds of claimed contradictions. Some discrepancies are accounted for by changes from the master manuscripts (which are alleged to contain very nearly the original text and) that these alterations were introduced as copies were made (maybe of copies themselves), either deliberately or accidentally.

Many Evangelicals consider biblical inerrancy or biblical infallibility to be the necessary consequence of the Bible's doctrine of inspiration (see, for example, the Westminster Confession of Faith or the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy).

Three basic approaches to inspiration are often described when the evangelical approach to scripture is discussed:[12]: 239 

  • Verbal plenary inspiration: This view gives a greater role to the human writers of the Bible while maintaining a belief that God preserved the integrity of the words of the Bible. The effect of inspiration was to move the writers so as to produce the words God wanted.[12] In this view the human writers' "individual backgrounds, personal traits, and literary styles were authentically theirs, but had been providentially prepared by God for use as his instrument in producing Scripture."[13] However, the theory nuances that "God so mysteriously superintended the process that every word written was also the exact word he wanted to be written—free from all error."[14]
  • Verbal dictation theory: The dictation theory claims that God dictated the books of the Bible word by word, suggesting the writers were no more than tools used to communicate God's precisely intended message.[12]
  • Dynamic inspiration: The thoughts contained in the Bible are inspired, but the words used were left to the individual writers.[12] This suggests the underlying message of the Scriptures are inspired, while the exact wording is dynamic.
  • Partial inspiration: the Bible is infallible in matters of faith and practice/morals, yet it could have errors in history or science (e.g. the Big Bang could be true, and the Genesis creation account is more allegorical than historical).[15]
  • Intuition theory: The authors of the Scriptures were merely wise men, so the Bible is inspired by human insight.[15]

Theories seeing only parts of the Bible as inspired ("partial inspiration")[16] meet with insistent emphasis on plenary inspiration on the part of its proponents.

Critical viewpoint

The New American Commentary by T.D. Lea and H.P. Griffen says, "[n]o respected Evangelicals maintain that God dictated the words of Scripture."[12] By this, Lea & Griffen were referring to the entirety of the Scriptures, i.e. every single word in the Bible. Lea & Griffen meant that they advocated verbal plenary inspiration as fact, instead of the verbal dictation theory.

The Evangelical position was criticized as being circular by an anonymous Catholic author, who accepted the doctrine of biblical inspiration. This author claimed that the Bible can only be used to prove doctrines of biblical inspiration if the doctrine is assumed to begin with.[17] Some defenders of the evangelical doctrine such as B. B. Warfield and Charles Hodge, however, moved away from a circular argument and "committed themselves to the legitimacy of external verification" to inductively prove the doctrine, though they placed some restrictions on the evidences that could be considered.[18]

Lutheran and Reformed viewpoint

As Lutherans confess in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit "spoke through the prophets". The Apology of the Augsburg Confession identifies Holy Scripture with the Word of God[19] and calls the Holy Spirit the author of the Bible.[20]

According to Frederic FarrarMartin Luther did not understand inspiration to mean that the scriptures were dictated in a purely mechanical manner. Instead, Luther "held that they were not dictated by the Holy Spirit, but that His illumination produced in the minds of their writers the knowledge of salvation, so that divine truth had been expressed in human form, and the knowledge of God had become a personal possession of man. The actual writing was a human not a supernatural act."[21] John Calvin also rejected the verbal dictation theory.[22]

Luther asserted that "He [the pious Christian] should not doubt that however simple they [the Scriptures] may seem, these are the very words, deeds, judgments, and history of the high majesty and wisdom of God; for this is the Scripture which makes fools out of all the wise".[23]

The doctrine of sola scriptura was one of the central teachings during the Protestant Reformation. It teaches that the Bible is the final authority for moral, spiritual, and for some, civil matters. As Luther said, "The true rule is this: God's Word shall establish articles of faith, and no one else, not even an angel can do so."[24]

Catholic viewpoint

Hildegard of Bingen receiving divine inspiration (illustration in the Rupertsberger Codex, c. 1180)

The Catechism of the Catholic Church alleges that the Bible's human writers were "consigned to writing whatever he wanted written, and no more."[25] The Catechism also claims that the Bible is "without error".[26] The Catholic Church holds the Bible as inspired by God, but that it does not view God as the direct author of the Bible, in the sense that he does not put a 'ready-made' book in the mind of the inspired person.[27]

Pope Benedict XVI gave the following (non-dogmatic) explanation in 2007:

The Scripture emerged from within the heart of a living subject — the pilgrim people of God — and lives within this same subject. ...[T]he individual author or group of authors ... are not autonomous ... they form part of ... the "people of God," ... the deeper "author" of the Scriptures. ...[L]ikewise, this people ... knows that it is led, and spoken to, by God himself, who — through men and their humanity — is at the deepest level the one speaking. [28]

The Catholic view of biblical inspiration stems from the belief in the historical authenticity of the foundation of an infallible inchurch, and Jesus' grant of teaching authority to that church through his apostles. Because the church designated the canon through its tradition, its authority to identify the inspired books is accepted, rather than any self-contained or inherent claims of the Scriptures themselves.[17][29][27]

Modern Christian viewpoint

The typical view within Liberal Christianity and Progressive Christianity rejects the idea that the Bible is divinely inspired. Some advocates of higher criticism who espouse this view even go so far as to regard the Bible as purely a product of human invention. However, most form critics, such as Rudolf Bultmann (1884-1976) and Walter Brueggemann (1933- ), still regard the Bible as a sacred text, just not a text that communicates the unaltered word of God.[30] They see it instead as true, divinely inspired theology mixed with foreign elements that can sometimes be inconsistent with the overarching messages found in Scripture and that have discernible roots in history, mythology, or ancient cultic practices.

Neo-orthodox viewpoint

Emil Brunner (1889-1966) was one of the primary advocates of Neo-othodoxy. He wrote, "[T]he Christian Church believes the Bible to be the Word of God" & "Christian faith is Bible faith."[31] He also wrote, "Yes, God has made known the secret of His will through the Prophets and Apostles in the Holy Scriptures."[32] Brunner rhetorically asked, "Is the whole Bible God's Word then?" Brunner answered, "Yes, insofar as it speaks of that which is 'here' in Christ."[33] It goes without saying that presently some, but not all copies & translations contain errors. But Brunner's illustration was, "If you buy a phonograph record you are told that you will hear the Master Caruso. Is that true? Of course! But really his voice? Certainly!" Brunner kept emphatically writing, "[T]he Bible[...] makes the real Master's voice audible,—really his voice, his words, what he wants to say. Men's personalities can be discerned in Bible, just as Brunner wrote, "[...] God speaks His Word through the voice of man. Paul, Peter, Isaiah and Moses are such men." Brunner ultimately concludes that, "Only a fool listens to the incidental noises when he might listen to his Master's voice!"[34]

The Neo-orthodox doctrine of inspiration views the Bible as "the words of God". This view was a reaction to the Modernist doctrine, which Neo-orthodox proponents argue eroded the value and significance of the Christian faith. Karl Barth (1886-1968) was another one of the primary advocates of Neo-othodoxy.

Other viewpoints

A 2011 Gallup survey reports, "A 49% plurality of Americans say the Bible is the inspired word of God but that it should not be taken literally, consistently the most common view in Gallup's nearly 40-year history of this question."[35]

See also

References

  1. ^ Bruce Manning Metzger; Michael David Coogan (20 December 2001). The Oxford Guide to Ideas & Issues of the Bible. Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 216–. ISBN 978-0-19-514917-3.
  2. ^ Gerhard Maier: Biblische Hermeneutik (= TVG Monographien und Studienbücher. Band 355). 7. Auflage. R. Brockhaus, Wuppertal 2011, ISBN 978-3-417-29355-5, S. 94.
  3. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 1, 334.
  4. ^ Holmes, Michael (2010). "The Greek New Testament: SBL Ed". Society of Biblical Literature. [...] theopnuestos [...]
  5. ^ Metzger, Bruce (1987). The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development and Significance. New York: Oxford University. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-19-826180-3.
  6. ^ Dodd, Charles Harold (1929). The Authority of the Bible. Library of constructive theology. London: Harper and Brothers. p. 15. ISBN 0-00-625195-1OCLC 559048103.
  7. ^ Daniel B. Wallace (1996). Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. pp. 313–314. ISBN 0-310-21895-0Many scholars feel that the translation should be: 'Every inspired scripture is also profitable.' This is probably not the best translation, however, for the following reasons: (1) Contextually [...] (2) Grammatically [...]
  8. ^ Ryrie, C.C. (1972). A survey of Bible doctrines. Chicago IL: Moody.
  9. ^ Young, Edward Joseph (1957). Thy Word Is Truth. Grand Rapids MI: Eerdmans. p. 27.
  10. ^ Haley, John W (1874). Alleged Discrepancies of the Bible. W.F. Draper.
  11. ^ Geisler, Norman (1992). When Critics Ask. Wheaton IL: Victor Books. p. 604. ISBN 0896936988. Archived from the original on 2017-03-05.
  12. Jump up to:a b c d e Lea, Thomas Dale; Griffin, Jr., Hayne Preston (1992). The New American Commentary (1, 2 Timothy, Titus), VOL. 34. Nashville TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers. ISBN 0805401342.
  13. ^ Myers, A.C. (1987). "Inspiration". Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Grand Rapids MI: Eerdmans. p. 27.
  14. ^ Plummer, Robert L. (2010). 40 questions about interpreting the Bible. Grand Rapids MI: Kregel Publications. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-8254-3498-3OCLC 435422984.
  15. Jump up to:a b Huffman, Justin (July 18, 2017). "The Inspiration of Scripture"Baptist Bible Hour.
  16. ^ For example: Elwell, Walter A., ed. (1984). "Verbal Inspiration". Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Baker Reference Library (2 ed.). Grand Rapids MI: Baker Academic (published 2001). p. 1242. ISBN 9780801020759. Retrieved 2017-08-29The spirit of the Renaissance, developments in philology and textual criticism, the emergence of ideas of the partial inspiration of the Bible in some quarters, and the initial expression of philosophical views that would find their culmination in the Enlightenment - all helped to stimulate theological reflection. And the refinement of plenary and then verbal inspiration were among the consequences.
  17. Jump up to:a b Brom, Robert Henry; Carr, Bernadeane; Keating, Karl, eds. (August 10, 2004). "[Tract] Proving Inspiration". Catholic Answers [Magazine]. When Brom was Bishop of San Diego, he gave his official imprimatur to this tract. Before she retired from being Director of the Diocesan Institute, Ms. Carr gave her official nihil obstat to this tract. Keating was the founder of the Catholic group behind this magazine. Any anonymous author can submit a piece.
  18. ^ Coleman, Richard J. (January 1975). "Biblical Inerrancy: Are We Going Anywhere?"Theology Today31 (4): 295–303. doi:10.1177/004057367503100404OCLC 60620600S2CID 170389190. Archived from the original on 2002-05-03. Retrieved 2008-07-01.
  19. ^ "God's Word, or Holy Scripture" is a phrase in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Art. II: "Of Original Sin"
  20. ^ "the Scripture of the Holy Ghost". Apology to the Augsburg Confession, Greeting, ¶ 9
  21. ^ Farrar, F. W. (1886). History of interpretation. London: Macmillan and Co. p. 339.
  22. ^ Farrar, F. W. (1886). History of interpretation. London: Macmillan and Co. p. 345.
  23. ^ Hannah, John D. (1984). Inerrancy and the Church (PDF). The University of Michigan: Moody Publishers. p. 113. ISBN 9780802403278.
  24. ^ Martin Luther, Smalcald Articles II, 15.
  25. ^ "Inspiration and Truth of Sacred Scripture, §106"The Vatican. 4 Nov 2003 [1993].
  26. ^ "Inspiration and Truth of Sacred Scripture, §107"The Vatican. 4 Nov 2003 [1993].
  27. Jump up to:a b Durand, Alfred (1910). "Inspiration of the Bible"The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  28. ^ Ratzinger, Joseph (2007). Jesus of Nazareth. Translated by A. J. Walker. London: Bloomsbury. p. xx.
  29. ^ "Scripture and Tradition"Catholic Answers. 19 November 2018.
  30. ^ Walter Brueggemann; William Carl Placher; Brian K. Blount (1 January 2002). Struggling with Scripture. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 7–. ISBN 978-0-664-22485-1.
  31. ^ Brunner, Emil. Our Faith. Chapter 2. Is the Bible the word of God?. p. 7.
  32. ^ Brunner, Emil. Our Faith. Chapter 2. Is the Bible the word of God?. p. 8.
  33. ^ Brunner, Emil. Our Faith. Chapter 2. Is the Bible the word of God?. p. 9.
  34. ^ Brunner, Emil. Our Faith. Chapter 2. Is the Bible the word of God?. p. 10.
  35. ^ Jones, Jeffrey M. (July 8, 2011). "In U.S., 3 in 10 Say They Take the Bible Literally"Gallup.

Bibliography

Further reading

External links