Quotes & Sayings

We, and creation itself, actualize the possibilities of the God who sustains the world, towards becoming in the world in a fuller, more deeper way. - R.E. Slater

There is urgency in coming to see the world as a web of interrelated processes of which we are integral parts, so that all of our choices and actions have [consequential effects upon] the world around us. - Process Metaphysician Alfred North Whitehead

Kurt Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem says (i) all closed systems are unprovable within themselves and, that (ii) all open systems are rightly understood as incomplete. - R.E. Slater

The most true thing about you is what God has said to you in Christ, "You are My Beloved." - Tripp Fuller

The God among us is the God who refuses to be God without us, so great is God's Love. - Tripp Fuller

According to some Christian outlooks we were made for another world. Perhaps, rather, we were made for this world to recreate, reclaim, redeem, and renew unto God's future aspiration by the power of His Spirit. - R.E. Slater

Our eschatological ethos is to love. To stand with those who are oppressed. To stand against those who are oppressing. It is that simple. Love is our only calling and Christian Hope. - R.E. Slater

Secularization theory has been massively falsified. We don't live in an age of secularity. We live in an age of explosive, pervasive religiosity... an age of religious pluralism. - Peter L. Berger

Exploring the edge of life and faith in a post-everything world. - Todd Littleton

I don't need another reason to believe, your love is all around for me to see. – Anon

Thou art our need; and in giving us more of thyself thou givest us all. - Khalil Gibran, Prayer XXIII

Be careful what you pretend to be. You become what you pretend to be. - Kurt Vonnegut

Religious beliefs, far from being primary, are often shaped and adjusted by our social goals. - Jim Forest

We become who we are by what we believe and can justify. - R.E. Slater

People, even more than things, need to be restored, renewed, revived, reclaimed, and redeemed; never throw out anyone. – Anon

Certainly, God's love has made fools of us all. - R.E. Slater

An apocalyptic Christian faith doesn't wait for Jesus to come, but for Jesus to become in our midst. - R.E. Slater

Christian belief in God begins with the cross and resurrection of Jesus, not with rational apologetics. - Eberhard Jüngel, Jürgen Moltmann

Our knowledge of God is through the 'I-Thou' encounter, not in finding God at the end of a syllogism or argument. There is a grave danger in any Christian treatment of God as an object. The God of Jesus Christ and Scripture is irreducibly subject and never made as an object, a force, a power, or a principle that can be manipulated. - Emil Brunner

“Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh” means "I will be that who I have yet to become." - God (Ex 3.14) or, conversely, “I AM who I AM Becoming.”

Our job is to love others without stopping to inquire whether or not they are worthy. - Thomas Merton

The church is God's world-changing social experiment of bringing unlikes and differents to the Eucharist/Communion table to share life with one another as a new kind of family. When this happens, we show to the world what love, justice, peace, reconciliation, and life together is designed by God to be. The church is God's show-and-tell for the world to see how God wants us to live as a blended, global, polypluralistic family united with one will, by one Lord, and baptized by one Spirit. – Anon

The cross that is planted at the heart of the history of the world cannot be uprooted. - Jacques Ellul

The Unity in whose loving presence the universe unfolds is inside each person as a call to welcome the stranger, protect animals and the earth, respect the dignity of each person, think new thoughts, and help bring about ecological civilizations. - John Cobb & Farhan A. Shah

If you board the wrong train it is of no use running along the corridors of the train in the other direction. - Dietrich Bonhoeffer

God's justice is restorative rather than punitive; His discipline is merciful rather than punishing; His power is made perfect in weakness; and His grace is sufficient for all. – Anon

Our little [biblical] systems have their day; they have their day and cease to be. They are but broken lights of Thee, and Thou, O God art more than they. - Alfred Lord Tennyson

We can’t control God; God is uncontrollable. God can’t control us; God’s love is uncontrolling! - Thomas Jay Oord

Life in perspective but always in process... as we are relational beings in process to one another, so life events are in process in relation to each event... as God is to Self, is to world, is to us... like Father, like sons and daughters, like events... life in process yet always in perspective. - R.E. Slater

To promote societal transition to sustainable ways of living and a global society founded on a shared ethical framework which includes respect and care for the community of life, ecological integrity, universal human rights, respect for diversity, economic justice, democracy, and a culture of peace. - The Earth Charter Mission Statement

Christian humanism is the belief that human freedom, individual conscience, and unencumbered rational inquiry are compatible with the practice of Christianity or even intrinsic in its doctrine. It represents a philosophical union of Christian faith and classical humanist principles. - Scott Postma

It is never wise to have a self-appointed religious institution determine a nation's moral code. The opportunities for moral compromise and failure are high; the moral codes and creeds assuredly racist, discriminatory, or subjectively and religiously defined; and the pronouncement of inhumanitarian political objectives quite predictable. - R.E. Slater

God's love must both center and define the Christian faith and all religious or human faiths seeking human and ecological balance in worlds of subtraction, harm, tragedy, and evil. - R.E. Slater

In Whitehead’s process ontology, we can think of the experiential ground of reality as an eternal pulse whereby what is objectively public in one moment becomes subjectively prehended in the next, and whereby the subject that emerges from its feelings then perishes into public expression as an object (or “superject”) aiming for novelty. There is a rhythm of Being between object and subject, not an ontological division. This rhythm powers the creative growth of the universe from one occasion of experience to the next. This is the Whiteheadian mantra: “The many become one and are increased by one.” - Matthew Segall

Without Love there is no Truth. And True Truth is always Loving. There is no dichotomy between these terms but only seamless integration. This is the premier centering focus of a Processual Theology of Love. - R.E. Slater


Note: Generally I do not respond to commentary. I may read the comments but wish to reserve my time to write (or write from the comments I read). Instead, I'd like to see our community help one another and in the helping encourage and exhort each of us towards Christian love in Christ Jesus our Lord and Savior. - re slater

Tuesday, May 25, 2021

What Would Process Christianity Look Like?

Amazon Link

Open and Relational Theology:
An Introduction to Life-Changing Ideas

by Thomas Oord
published July 2021

I have been asking myself how to go about producing a doctrinal theology on Process Christianity. I believe I no longer need go about taking on this task as my friend, Thomas Oord, has accomplished a part of it in his latest upcoming book out this July 2021. I believe Tom's text would be a good beginning in summarizing a Process Theology through the perspectives of an Open and Relational Theology. Thank you Tom for this help!

What Would Process Christianity Look Like?

Process Christianity might be condensed in an Open and Relational form which at present I might sum up in five motifs:

1 - A personal/relational God who "Is" and not "It"

2 - A unique divine ontic distinction between God and creation/creatures expressed in terms of divine alterity (radical otherness) inseparably combined with divine immanence (radical intimacy)

3 - A God who everlastingly creates. This refers to the universal process of "organic being which is always in process of becoming". Ex: God said "I Am and Am Becoming" (Ex 3.14). Thus rejecting creatio ex nihilo (creation from nothing) by replacing it with creatio continua (creation always forming).*

4 - A theology which addresses the problem of evil in terms of creationally imbued agency rather than in terms of divine determinism. This would then necessarily re-orientate traditional ideations of divine sovereignty into more formative terms of process-based sovereignty in accordance with who God is in His divine Self and Self-expression. 
5 Lastly, Process Christianity must include as foundational to its categorical genres a close affinity with Panentheism, Panexperientialism, and Panpsychism. The first speaks to organic relationship, the second to organic wholeness, and the last to organic awareness.

R.E. Slater
May 25, 2021

*This will be a developing post

* * * * * * * *

*Creatio Ex Nihilo by Keith Ward

Creatio ex nihilo (Latin for "creation from nothing") refers to the view that the universe, the whole of space-time, is created by a free act of God out of nothing, and not either out of some preexisting material or out of the divine substance itself. This view was widely, though not universally, accepted in the early Christian Church, and was formally defined as dogma by the fourth Lateran Council in 1215. Creatio ex nihilo is now almost universally accepted by Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Indian theism generally holds that the universe is substantially one with God, though it is usually still thought of as a free and unconstrained act of God.

*Creatio Continua, by Keith Ward

The term creatio continua refers to God's continuing creative activity throughout the history of the universe. In a sense, most theologians accept creatio continua, since creation is the dependence of the whole of space-time on God. But more traditional views hold that because God is timeless and immutable, there is only one divine creative act, which originates the whole of space-time from first to last. Those who speak of creatio continua think of creation taking place in many successive acts, partly in response to events in time. Thus, at any particular time God's creation has not been completed, and the future is partly open, in some theological views, even for God.

Creatio Continua

Quantum Baryogenesis - Necessary Cosmic Asymmetry & Imbalance

In physical cosmology, baryogenesis is the generic term for hypothetical physical processes that produced an asymmetry between baryons and antibaryons in the very early universe, resulting in the substantial amounts of residual matter that make up the universe today. Baryogenesis theories employ sub-disciplines of physics such as quantum field theory, and statistical physics, to describe such possible mechanisms. The fundamental difference between baryogenesis theories is the description of the interactions between fundamental particles. The next step after baryogenesis is the much better understood Big Bang nucleosynthesis, during which light atomic nuclei began to form.

Classroom Aid - Baryogenesis

Antimatter and Matter : Baryogenesis

The Missing Mass Mystery | Space Time

FermiLab: What is Supersymmetry?

Astronomy: The Big Bang (18 of 30)
What is Baryogenesis?

Understanding very strong electroweak phase transitions
by Kimmo Kainulanen

Mikhail Shaposhnikov

Mikhail Shaposhnikov (EPFL Lausanne):
Baryogenesis and Leptogenesis - Lecture 1

Mikhail Shaposhnikov (EPFL Lausanne):
Baryogenesis and Leptogenesis - Lecture 2

Mikhail Shaposhnikov (EPFL Lausanne):
Baryogenesis and Leptogenesis - Lecture 3


1 - Wikipedia - Dark Matter

2 - Wikipedia - Dark Energy

3 - https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/physics-and-astronomy/baryogenesis

4 - https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/31589/0000518.pdf;sequence=1

5 - https://journals.aps.org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.103.043504

6 - https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/physics-of-the-dark-universe/vol/32/suppl/C

* * * * * * * * * *

The Creation

And God stepped out on space,
And he looked around and said:
I'm lonely—
I'll make me a world.

And far as the eye of God could see
Darkness covered everything,
Blacker than a hundred midnights
Down in a cypress swamp.

Then God smiled,
And the light broke,
And the darkness rolled up on one side,
And the light stood shining on the other,
And God said: That's good!

Then God reached out and took the light in his hands,
And God rolled the light around in his hands
Until he made the sun;
And he set that sun a-blazing in the heavens.
And the light that was left from making the sun
God gathered it up in a shining ball
And flung it against the darkness,
Spangling the night with the moon and stars.
Then down between
The darkness and the light
He hurled the world;
And God said: That's good!

Then God himself stepped down—
And the sun was on his right hand,
And the moon was on his left;
The stars were clustered about his head,
And the earth was under his feet.
And God walked, and where he trod
His footsteps hollowed the valleys out
And bulged the mountains up.

Then he stopped and looked and saw
That the earth was hot and barren.
So God stepped over to the edge of the world
And he spat out the seven seas—
He batted his eyes, and the lightnings flashed—
He clapped his hands, and the thunders rolled—
And the waters above the earth came down,
The cooling waters came down.

Then the green grass sprouted,
And the little red flowers blossomed,
The pine tree pointed his finger to the sky,
And the oak spread out his arms,
The lakes cuddled down in the hollows of the ground,
And the rivers ran down to the sea;
And God smiled again,
And the rainbow appeared,
And curled itself around his shoulder.

Then God raised his arm and he waved his hand
Over the sea and over the land,
And he said: Bring forth! Bring forth!
And quicker than God could drop his hand,
Fishes and fowls
And beasts and birds
Swam the rivers and the seas,
Roamed the forests and the woods,
And split the air with their wings.
And God said: That's good!

Then God walked around,
And God looked around
On all that he had made.
He looked at his sun,
And he looked at his moon,
And he looked at his little stars;
He looked on his world
With all its living things,
And God said: I'm lonely still.

Then God sat down—
On the side of a hill where he could think;
By a deep, wide river he sat down;
With his head in his hands,
God thought and thought,
Till he thought: I'll make me a man!

Up from the bed of the river
God scooped the clay;
And by the bank of the river
He kneeled him down;
And there the great God Almighty
Who lit the sun and fixed it in the sky,
Who flung the stars to the most far corner of the night,
Who rounded the earth in the middle of his hand;
This great God,
Like a mammy bending over her baby,
Kneeled down in the dust
Toiling over a lump of clay
Till he shaped it in is his own image;

Then into it he blew the breath of life,
And man became a living soul.
Amen. Amen.

* * * * * * * * * *

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In physical cosmologybaryogenesis is the physical process that is hypothesized to have taken place during the early universe to produce baryonic asymmetry, i.e. the imbalance of matter (baryons) and antimatter (antibaryons) in the observed universe.[1]

One of the outstanding problems in modern physics is the predominance of matter over antimatter in the universe. The universe, as a whole, seems to have a nonzero positive baryon number density – that is, matter exists. Since it is assumed in cosmology that the particles we see were created using the same physics we measure today, it would normally be expected that the overall baryon number should be zero, as matter and antimatter should have been created in equal amounts. A number of theoretical mechanisms are proposed to account for this discrepancy, namely identifying conditions that favour symmetry breaking and the creation of normal matter (as opposed to antimatter). This imbalance has to be exceptionally small, on the order of 1 in every 1630000000 (~2×109) particles a small fraction of a second after the Big Bang.[2] After most of the matter and antimatter was annihilated, what remained was all the baryonic matter in the current universe, along with a much greater number of bosons. Experiments reported in 2010 at Fermilab, however, seem to show that this imbalance is much greater than previously assumed.[3] These experiments involved a series of particle collisions and found that the amount of generated matter was approximately 1% larger than the amount of generated antimatter. The reason for this discrepancy is yet unknown.

Most grand unified theories explicitly break the baryon number symmetry, which would account for this discrepancy, typically invoking reactions mediated by very massive X bosons (
 or massive Higgs bosons (
).[4] The rate at which these events occur is governed largely by the mass of the intermediate 
 particles, so by assuming these reactions are responsible for the majority of the baryon number seen today, a maximum mass can be calculated above which the rate would be too slow to explain the presence of matter today.[5] These estimates predict that a large volume of material will occasionally exhibit a spontaneous proton decay, which has not been observed. Therefore, the imbalance between matter and antimatter remains a mystery.

Baryogenesis theories are based on different descriptions of the interaction between fundamental particles. Two main theories are electroweak baryogenesis (standard model), which would occur during the electroweak epoch, and the GUT baryogenesis, which would occur during or shortly after the grand unification epochQuantum field theory and statistical physics are used to describe such possible mechanisms.

Baryogenesis is followed by primordial nucleosynthesis, when atomic nuclei began to form.


The majority of ordinary matter in the universe is found in atomic nuclei, which are made of neutrons and protons. These nucleons are made up of smaller particles called quarks, and antimatter equivalents for each are predicted to exist by the Dirac equation in 1928.[6] Since then, each kind of antiquark has been experimentally verified. Hypotheses investigating the first few instants of the universe predict a composition with an almost equal number of quarks and antiquarks.[7] Once the universe expanded and cooled to a critical temperature of approximately 2×1012 K,[1] quarks combined into normal matter and antimatter and proceeded to annihilate up to the small initial asymmetry of about one part in five billion, leaving the matter around us.[1] Free and separate individual quarks and antiquarks have never been observed in experiments—quarks and antiquarks are always found in groups of three (baryons), or bound in quark–antiquark pairs (mesons). Likewise, there is no experimental evidence that there are any significant concentrations of antimatter in the observable universe.

There are two main interpretations for this disparity: either the universe began with a small preference for matter (total baryonic number of the universe different from zero), or the universe was originally perfectly symmetric, but somehow a set of phenomena contributed to a small imbalance in favour of matter over time. The second point of view is preferred, although there is no clear experimental evidence indicating either of them to be the correct one.

GUT Baryogenesis under Sakharov conditions

In 1967, Andrei Sakharov proposed[8] a set of three necessary conditions that a baryon-generating interaction must satisfy to produce matter and antimatter at different rates. These conditions were inspired by the recent discoveries of the cosmic background radiation[9] and CP-violation in the neutral kaon system.[10] The three necessary "Sakharov conditions" are:

Baryon number violation is a necessary condition to produce an excess of baryons over anti-baryons. But C-symmetry violation is also needed so that the interactions which produce more baryons than anti-baryons will not be counterbalanced by interactions which produce more anti-baryons than baryons. CP-symmetry violation is similarly required because otherwise equal numbers of left-handed baryons and right-handed anti-baryons would be produced, as well as equal numbers of left-handed anti-baryons and right-handed baryons. Finally, the interactions must be out of thermal equilibrium, since otherwise CPT symmetry would assure compensation between processes increasing and decreasing the baryon number.[11]

Currently, there is no experimental evidence of particle interactions where the conservation of baryon number is broken perturbatively: this would appear to suggest that all observed particle reactions have equal baryon number before and after. Mathematically, the commutator of the baryon number quantum operator with the (perturbative) Standard Model hamiltonian is zero: . However, the Standard Model is known to violate the conservation of baryon number only non-perturbatively: a global U(1) anomaly.[12] To account for baryon violation in baryogenesis, such events (including proton decay) can occur in Grand Unification Theories (GUTs) and supersymmetric (SUSY) models via hypothetical massive bosons such as the X boson.

The second condition – violation of CP-symmetry – was discovered in 1964 (direct CP-violation, that is violation of CP-symmetry in a decay process, was discovered later, in 1999).[13] Due to CPT symmetry, violation of CP-symmetry demands violation of time inversion symmetry, or T-symmetry.

In the out-of-equilibrium decay scenario,[14] the last condition states that the rate of a reaction which generates baryon-asymmetry must be less than the rate of expansion of the universe. In this situation the particles and their corresponding antiparticles do not achieve thermal equilibrium due to rapid expansion decreasing the occurrence of pair-annihilation.

Baryogenesis within the Standard Model

The Standard Model can incorporate baryogenesis, though the amount of net baryons (and leptons) thus created may not be sufficient to account for the present baryon asymmetry. There is a required one excess quark per billion quark-antiquark pairs in the early universe in order to provide all the observed matter in the universe.[1] This insufficiency has not yet been explained, theoretically or otherwise.

Baryogenesis within the Standard Model requires the electroweak symmetry breaking to be a first-order phase transition, since otherwise sphalerons wipe off any baryon asymmetry that happened up to the phase transition. Beyond this, the remaining amount of baryon non-conserving interactions is negligible.[15]

The phase transition domain wall breaks the P-symmetry spontaneously, allowing for CP-symmetry violating interactions to break C-symmetry on both its sides. Quarks tend to accumulate on the broken phase side of the domain wall, while anti-quarks tend to accumulate on its unbroken phase side.[11] Due to CP-symmetry violating electroweak interactions, some amplitudes involving quarks are not equal to the corresponding amplitudes involving anti-quarks, but rather have opposite phase (see CKM matrix and Kaon); since time reversal takes an amplitude to its complex conjugate, CPT-symmetry is conserved in this entire process.

Though some of their amplitudes have opposite phases, both quarks and anti-quarks have positive energy, and hence acquire the same phase as they move in space-time. This phase also depends on their mass, which is identical but depends both on flavor and on the Higgs VEV which changes along the domain wall.[16] Thus certain sums of amplitudes for quarks have different absolute values compared to those of anti-quarks. In all, quarks and anti-quarks may have different reflection and transmission probabilities through the domain wall, and it turns out that more quarks coming from the unbroken phase are transmitted compared to anti-quarks.

Thus there is a net baryonic flux through the domain wall. Due to sphaleron transitions, which are abundant in the unbroken phase, the net anti-baryonic content of the unbroken phase is wiped off as anti-baryons are transformed into leptons.[17] However, sphalerons are rare enough in the broken phase as not to wipe off the excess of baryons there. In total, there is net creation of baryons (as well as leptons).

In this scenario, non-perturbative electroweak interactions (i.e. the sphaleron) are responsible for the B-violation, the perturbative electroweak Lagrangian is responsible for the CP-violation, and the domain wall is responsible for the lack of thermal equilibrium and the P-violation; together with the CP-violation it also creates a C-violation in each of its sides.[18]

Matter content in the universe

The central question to Baryogenesis is what causes the preference for matter over antimatter in the universe, as well as the magnitude of this asymmetry. An important quantifier is the asymmetry parameter, given by

where nB and nB refer to the number density of baryons and antibaryons respectively and nγ is the number density of cosmic background radiation photons.[19]

According to the Big Bang model, matter decoupled from the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at a temperature of roughly 3000 kelvin, corresponding to an average kinetic energy of 3000 K / (10.08×103 K/eV) = 0.3 eV. After the decoupling, the total number of CBR photons remains constant. Therefore, due to space-time expansion, the photon density decreases. The photon density at equilibrium temperature T per cubic centimeter, is given by


with kB as the Boltzmann constantħ as the Planck constant divided by 2π and c as the speed of light in vacuum, and ζ(3) as Apéry's constant.[19] At the current CBR photon temperature of 2.725 K, this corresponds to a photon density nγ of around 411 CBR photons per cubic centimeter.

Therefore, the asymmetry parameter η, as defined above, is not the "best" parameter. Instead, the preferred asymmetry parameter uses the entropy density s,

because the entropy density of the universe remained reasonably constant throughout most of its evolution. The entropy density is

with p and ρ as the pressure and density from the energy density tensor Tμν, and g as the effective number of degrees of freedom for "massless" particles at temperature T (in so far as mc2 ≪ kBT holds),


for bosons and fermions with gi and gj degrees of freedom at temperatures Ti and Tj respectively. At the present epoch, s = 7.04 nγ.[19]

Ongoing research efforts

Ties to dark matter

A possible explanation for the cause of baryogenesis is the decay reaction of B-Mesogenesis. This phenomena suggests that in the early universe, particles such as the B-meson decay into a visible Standard Model baryon as well as a dark antibaryon that is invisible to current observation techniques.[20] The process begins by assuming a massive, long-lived, scalar particle  that exists in the early universe before Big Bang nucleosynthesis.[21] The exact behavior of  is as yet unknown, but it is assumed to decay into b quarks and antiquarks in conditions outside of thermal equilibrium, thus satisfying one Sakharov condition. These b quarks form into B-mesons, which immediately hadronize into oscillating CP-violating  states, thus satisfying another Sakharov condition.[22] These oscillating mesons then decay down into the baryon-dark antibaryon pair previously mentioned, , where  is the parent B-meson,  is the dark antibaryon,  is the visible baryon, and  is any extra light meson daughters required to satisfy other conservation laws in this particle decay.[20] If this process occurs fast enough, the CP-violation effect gets carried over to the dark matter sector. However, this contradicts (or at least challenges) the last Sakharov condition, since the expected matter preference in the visible universe is balanced by a new antimatter preference in the dark matter of the universe and total baryon number is conserved.[21]

B-Mesogenesis results in missing energy between the initial and final states of the decay process, which, if recorded, could provide experimental evidence for dark matter. Particle laboratories equipped with B-meson factories such as Belle and BaBar are extremely sensitive to B-meson decays involving missing energy and currently have the capability to detect the  channel.[23][24] The LHC is also capable of searching for this interaction since it produces several orders of magnitude more B-mesons than Belle or BaBar, but there are more challenges from the decreased control over B-meson initial energy in the accelerator.[20]

See also



  1. Jump up to:a b c d Liddle, Andrew (2015). An Introduction to Modern Cosmology(3rd ed.). Hoboken: Wiley. ISBN 978-1-118-69027-7OCLC 905985679.
  2. ^ Perez, Pavel Fileviez; Murgui, Clara; Plascencia, Alexis D. (2021-03-24). "Baryogenesis via Leptogenesis: Spontaneous B and L Violation"arXiv:2103.13397 [hep-ex, physics:hep-ph].
  3. ^ V.M. Abazov; et al. (2010). "Evidence for an anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry". Physical Review D82 (3): 032001. arXiv:1005.2757Bibcode:2010PhRvD..82c2001Adoi:10.1103/PhysRevD.82.032001PMID 20868090S2CID 10661879.
  4. ^ Ghosh, Avirup; Ghosh, Deep; Mukhopadhyay, Satyanarayan (2021-03-05). "The role of CP-conserving annihilations in generating cosmological particle-antiparticle asymmetries"arXiv:2103.03650 [astro-ph, physics:hep-ph].
  5. ^ Bass, Steven D.; De Roeck, Albert; Kado, Marumi (2021-04-14). "The Higgs boson -- its implications and prospects for future discoveries"arXiv:2104.06821 [hep-ex, physics:hep-ph].
  6. ^ P.A.M. Dirac (1928). "The Quantum Theory of the Electron"Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A117 (778): 610–624. Bibcode:1928RSPSA.117..610Ddoi:10.1098/rspa.1928.0023.
  7. ^ Sarkar, Utpal (2007). Particle and astroparticle physicsCRC Press. p. 429. ISBN 978-1-58488-931-1.
  8. ^ A. D. Sakharov (1967). "Violation of CP invariance, C asymmetry, and baryon asymmetry of the universe"Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Letters5: 24–27. and in Russian, A. D. Sakharov(1967). "Violation of CP invariance, C asymmetry, and baryon asymmetry of the universe"ZhETF Pis'ma5: 32–35. republished as A. D. Sakharov (1991). "Violation of CP invariance, C asymmetry, and baryon asymmetry of the universe"Soviet Physics Uspekhi (in Russian and English). 34 (5): 392–393. Bibcode:1991SvPhU..34..392Sdoi:10.1070/PU1991v034n05ABEH002497.
  9. ^ A. A. PenziasR. W. Wilson (1965). "A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Mc/s". Astrophysical Journal142: 419–421. Bibcode:1965ApJ...142..419Pdoi:10.1086/148307.
  10. ^ J. W. CroninV. L. Fitch; et al. (1964). "Evidence for the 2π decay of the 
    Physical Review Letters13 (4): 138–140. Bibcode:1964PhRvL..13..138Cdoi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.138.
  11. Jump up to:a b M. E. Shaposhnikov; G. R. Farrar (1993). "Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe in the Minimal Standard Model". Physical Review Letters70 (19): 2833–2836. arXiv:hep-ph/9305274Bibcode:1993PhRvL..70.2833Fdoi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.2833PMID 10053665S2CID 15937666.
  12. ^ Boubakir, A.; Aissaoui, H.; Mebarki, N. (2021-02-18). "Strong First Order Phase Transition and $B$ Violation in the Compact 341 Model"arXiv:2102.09931 [hep-ph, physics:hep-th].
  13. ^ Griffiths, David J. (2008). Introduction to elementary particles (2nd ed.). Weinheim [Germany]: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 978-3-527-40601-2OCLC 248969635.
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