|Standard Model of elementary particles|
M-Theory and the Higgs boson
The discovery of a potential Higgs boson particle plays a crucial role in super-symmetry - just one more of the ingredients needed to provide evidence of the M-Theory of strings - Energetic pieces of threads may finally explain all four fundamental forces of nature (photons, bosons, gluons, gravitons) and our perceived reality with space, time, matter and motion.
The basic elements of this so far are purely mathematical concepts known as 'strings' and 'membranes' — subatomic one-dimensional energy threads and built areas.
The mere vibrations of tiny strings and membranes, only about a hundredth of a billionth of a billionth of the size of an atomic nucleus generate everything - all elements of the periodic system, the vacuum of space and progressive time.
Acceptance of this 'theory of everything' relies on the super-symmetry of forces and matter.
Particle physicists need proof for super-symmetry as well as to explain their contemporary model of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPS) that are currently supposed to form extensive, galaxies stabilizing dark matter halos, apparently providing the majority of matter in the universe.
The announcement by CERN in 2012 that there is a high probability that the new particle they've found is the Higgs boson is an important step toward doing this.
Enter the 11th dimension
String theories, which emerged in the 1980s, postulate that 10 dimensions exist in nature. Only Einstein's three-dimensional space and one-dimensional time are 'rolled out', the other six spatial dimensions are 'curled up' and invisible.
Varying approaches led to different mathematical solutions and descriptions. Five variant approaches seemed to be promising, but did not produce suitable solutions for all existing elementary particles, space, time, and quantum gravity.
Then in 1994, the so-called M-Theory caused a second superstring revolution. It attempts to unify all five previously developed theories, introducing an 11th dimension and a staggering amount of mathematical solutions. The M-Theory considers those five set-ups to describe the same, but from different perspectives.
M-Theory formulates relationships between each of the five previous theories, calling those relationships 'dualities'. Each duality provides a mathematical solution to convert one string theory into another. The 11th dimension is supposed to acquire sufficient energy to infinitely expand.
One distinctive feature of the M-theory is the assumed existence of multidimensional spaces within any single point of space and time. Endless tring solutions are the result, creating far too many variations to find the suitable ones randomly; but powerful computes may help scienticsts find feasible results.
Multiverse Floating Membranes
String specialists ponder on a 'floating membrane' and consider the existence of our universe along such a membrane.
Infinite parallel universes accompany our universe with their own floating membranes. Leakages between those universes lead to a mathematically feasible concept of gravity.
WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)
All elementary particles that have been observed are either fermions (matter) or forces. Fermions are supposed to build all known types of matter. And elementary forces are either photons, W- and Z- bosons, gluons, or gravitons:
- Photons carry the forces of the electromagnetic fields
- W- and Z-bosons mediate a weak force of radioactive decay and neutrino interactions
- Gluons the strong force in the atomic nuclei
- Gravitons (quantum gravity)
A feasible solution for quantum gravity would be necessary to cover all four fundamental forces of nature (photons, bosons, gluons, gravitons).
The bosons challenge string physicists most. Currently they need 26 dimensions for a boson string theory - meaning 15 dimensions have been hypothesized on top of the 11-dimensional M-Theory.
The Higgs quantum field and the Higgs boson play a crucial role in providing proof of super-symmetry because they give elementary particles a mass by spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry. The Higgs boson is an excitation of the Higgs quantum background field above its ground state.
The basic theories for all elementary particles require getting accustomed to because each material particle is described as a distinguishable excitation state of basic energy strings and areas with quantum mechanical aspects.
The classical observations of nature completely fade in the imaginations of theoretical string physicists. The quantised approach to all forces and energies of nature already challenges these scientists from the very beginning. For example, look at a simple electron: like any photon, any electron either behaves as concentrated particle or spreading wave, only depending on the set-up of the experiment. This peculiarity has been called the dualism of wave and particle.
Quantum physicists handle this remaining inexplicable contradiction by the superposition of several possible states and conditions. There is only a probability that one of these states and conditions takes place. The whole of possible states is mathematically expressed by so-called 'wave' functions. Any single result of an observation appears accidentally. This way, quantum physics can predict atomic processes with extraordinary high precision.
A 'Theory of Everything' also requires rotational symmetry concepts of space-time. Rotational symmetry describes a successive exchange of physical quantities and states by energy impacts, for example of a length into time, time into energy density, energy density into time compression and, closing the circle, back into a space length.
Einstein described these rotational features in his theory of relativity by energy tensors and rotary functions. This circular exchange chain of physical quantities and states has been proven experimentally, but now needs completion with additional dimensions.
Quantum physics enters this picture by innovative time compression, representing the opposite function of time dilation.
Cosmology will strongly influence further development of string theory and the theory of everything.
We postulate that the accelerating expansion of the universe, explained by dark energy, is being driven by scalar fields. Fields of this kind serve as a description of changing super-symmetries that have their origin in one single type of initial force. These fields determine the development of the hierarchy of today's fundamental forces of nature. Rotational space-time symmetry accommodates the types of scalar fields that are needed to explain the peculiar negative pressure and adiabatic nature of dark energy. It explains the location and nature of the Higgs quantum field as well.
The M-Theory may soon culminate in the successful programming of powerful, quantum computers, but only the experimental proofs of super-symmetry and the identification of the circular exchange chain of parameters will open a new chapter in the contemporary standard model of physics.
For More Information begin here with Wikipedia
Elementary Particles - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elementary_particle
M-Theory - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M_theory
Supersymmetry - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supersymmetry
Higgs Boson - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higgs_boson
Theory of Everything - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_everything
Quantum Gravity - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_gravity
Dark Matter - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_matter
Dark Energy - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_energy
Multiverses - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiverses