Quotes & Sayings

We, and creation itself, actualize the possibilities of the God who sustains the world, towards becoming in the world in a fuller, more deeper way. - R.E. Slater

There is urgency in coming to see the world as a web of interrelated processes of which we are integral parts, so that all of our choices and actions have [consequential effects upon] the world around us. - Process Metaphysician Alfred North Whitehead

Kurt Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem says (i) all closed systems are unprovable within themselves and, that (ii) all open systems are rightly understood as incomplete. - R.E. Slater

The most true thing about you is what God has said to you in Christ, "You are My Beloved." - Tripp Fuller

The God among us is the God who refuses to be God without us, so great is God's Love. - Tripp Fuller

According to some Christian outlooks we were made for another world. Perhaps, rather, we were made for this world to recreate, reclaim, redeem, and renew unto God's future aspiration by the power of His Spirit. - R.E. Slater

Our eschatological ethos is to love. To stand with those who are oppressed. To stand against those who are oppressing. It is that simple. Love is our only calling and Christian Hope. - R.E. Slater

Secularization theory has been massively falsified. We don't live in an age of secularity. We live in an age of explosive, pervasive religiosity... an age of religious pluralism. - Peter L. Berger

Exploring the edge of life and faith in a post-everything world. - Todd Littleton

I don't need another reason to believe, your love is all around for me to see. – Anon

Thou art our need; and in giving us more of thyself thou givest us all. - Khalil Gibran, Prayer XXIII

Be careful what you pretend to be. You become what you pretend to be. - Kurt Vonnegut

Religious beliefs, far from being primary, are often shaped and adjusted by our social goals. - Jim Forest

We become who we are by what we believe and can justify. - R.E. Slater

People, even more than things, need to be restored, renewed, revived, reclaimed, and redeemed; never throw out anyone. – Anon

Certainly, God's love has made fools of us all. - R.E. Slater

An apocalyptic Christian faith doesn't wait for Jesus to come, but for Jesus to become in our midst. - R.E. Slater

Christian belief in God begins with the cross and resurrection of Jesus, not with rational apologetics. - Eberhard Jüngel, Jürgen Moltmann

Our knowledge of God is through the 'I-Thou' encounter, not in finding God at the end of a syllogism or argument. There is a grave danger in any Christian treatment of God as an object. The God of Jesus Christ and Scripture is irreducibly subject and never made as an object, a force, a power, or a principle that can be manipulated. - Emil Brunner

“Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh” means "I will be that who I have yet to become." - God (Ex 3.14) or, conversely, “I AM who I AM Becoming.”

Our job is to love others without stopping to inquire whether or not they are worthy. - Thomas Merton

The church is God's world-changing social experiment of bringing unlikes and differents to the Eucharist/Communion table to share life with one another as a new kind of family. When this happens, we show to the world what love, justice, peace, reconciliation, and life together is designed by God to be. The church is God's show-and-tell for the world to see how God wants us to live as a blended, global, polypluralistic family united with one will, by one Lord, and baptized by one Spirit. – Anon

The cross that is planted at the heart of the history of the world cannot be uprooted. - Jacques Ellul

The Unity in whose loving presence the universe unfolds is inside each person as a call to welcome the stranger, protect animals and the earth, respect the dignity of each person, think new thoughts, and help bring about ecological civilizations. - John Cobb & Farhan A. Shah

If you board the wrong train it is of no use running along the corridors of the train in the other direction. - Dietrich Bonhoeffer

God's justice is restorative rather than punitive; His discipline is merciful rather than punishing; His power is made perfect in weakness; and His grace is sufficient for all. – Anon

Our little [biblical] systems have their day; they have their day and cease to be. They are but broken lights of Thee, and Thou, O God art more than they. - Alfred Lord Tennyson

We can’t control God; God is uncontrollable. God can’t control us; God’s love is uncontrolling! - Thomas Jay Oord

Life in perspective but always in process... as we are relational beings in process to one another, so life events are in process in relation to each event... as God is to Self, is to world, is to us... like Father, like sons and daughters, like events... life in process yet always in perspective. - R.E. Slater

To promote societal transition to sustainable ways of living and a global society founded on a shared ethical framework which includes respect and care for the community of life, ecological integrity, universal human rights, respect for diversity, economic justice, democracy, and a culture of peace. - The Earth Charter Mission Statement

Christian humanism is the belief that human freedom, individual conscience, and unencumbered rational inquiry are compatible with the practice of Christianity or even intrinsic in its doctrine. It represents a philosophical union of Christian faith and classical humanist principles. - Scott Postma

It is never wise to have a self-appointed religious institution determine a nation's moral code. The opportunities for moral compromise and failure are high; the moral codes and creeds assuredly racist, discriminatory, or subjectively and religiously defined; and the pronouncement of inhumanitarian political objectives quite predictable. - R.E. Slater

God's love must both center and define the Christian faith and all religious or human faiths seeking human and ecological balance in worlds of subtraction, harm, tragedy, and evil. - R.E. Slater

In Whitehead’s process ontology, we can think of the experiential ground of reality as an eternal pulse whereby what is objectively public in one moment becomes subjectively prehended in the next, and whereby the subject that emerges from its feelings then perishes into public expression as an object (or “superject”) aiming for novelty. There is a rhythm of Being between object and subject, not an ontological division. This rhythm powers the creative growth of the universe from one occasion of experience to the next. This is the Whiteheadian mantra: “The many become one and are increased by one.” - Matthew Segall

Without Love there is no Truth. And True Truth is always Loving. There is no dichotomy between these terms but only seamless integration. This is the premier centering focus of a Processual Theology of Love. - R.E. Slater


Note: Generally I do not respond to commentary. I may read the comments but wish to reserve my time to write (or write from the comments I read). Instead, I'd like to see our community help one another and in the helping encourage and exhort each of us towards Christian love in Christ Jesus our Lord and Savior. - re slater

Tuesday, September 26, 2023

R.E. Slater - What Came Before the Book of Genesis?

Lost Humans - What Happened to our Prehistoric Forebears?

America's unique prehistoric problem


Questions of the Bible and Early Humanity

by R.E. Slater

Let's divide our discussion up into two timelines:
  • The Timeline when the Bible was Written
  • The Timeline of what Happened BEFORE the bible was written

PART I - Compositition of the Bible
Including Traditional Timelines of the Bible

Parts of the Hebrew Bible were written in perhaps the 10th century BCE. The final redaction and canonization of the Torah (the first five books of the Bible) most likely took place during the Babylonian Exile (6th–5th century BCE). The entire Hebrew Bible was complete by about 100 CE. The books of the New Testament were written in the 1st and 2nd centuries CE. 


Wikipedia - Composition [of the Old Testment]

Further information: Composition of the Torah,

The first five books—Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, book of Numbers and Deuteronomy—reached their present form in the Persian period (538–332 BC), and their authors were the elite of exilic returnees who controlled the Temple at that time. The books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings follow, forming a history of Israel from the Conquest of Canaan to the Siege of Jerusalem c. 587 BC. There is a broad consensus among scholars that these originated as a single work (the so-called "Deuteronomistic History") during the Babylonian exile of the 6th century BC.

The two Books of Chronicles cover much the same material as the Pentateuch and Deuteronomistic history and probably date from the 4th century BC. Chronicles, and Ezra–Nehemiah, was probably finished during the 3rd century BC.[21] Catholic and Orthodox Old Testaments contain two (Catholic Old Testament) to four (Orthodox) Books of the Maccabees, written in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC.

These history books make up around half the total content of the Old Testament. Of the remainder, the books of the various prophets—Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the twelve "minor prophets"—were written between the 8th and 6th centuries BC, with the exceptions of Jonah and Daniel, which were written much later. The "wisdom" books—Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Psalms, Song of Songs—have various dates: Proverbs possibly was completed by the Hellenistic time (332–198 BC), though containing much older material as well; Job completed by the 6th century BC; Ecclesiastes by the 3rd century BC.

PART II - Early Humanity BEFORE
the Old Testament

Christians like to think the stories in Genesis sum up humanity's origins. However, they don't even come close. I have been investigating man's origins through a number of articles over the past year. By the time we get to the early and late prophets the bible was in various stages of being collected during the eras of the monarchy and after its exile (say 750 BC to 350 BC).

Further, let's say Abraham was living around 1800 BC (older guesstimates place Abraham around 2400 BE). Concurrent to this time was Babylon (1894 BC to 681 BC) and before Abraham and Babylon were a series of cultural civilizations all the way back to the earliest age of the Neolithic era. As example, the city of Jericho in the bible was a very old "city" which place it not at 8,000 BC which I had thought but as old as 10,000 to 12,000 BC. By the time Joshua and his heavy-footed lads tromped around the city it was little wonder the aged walls of Jericho fell down! :D

Wikipedia (article link) - Jericho has evidence of settlement dating back to 10,000 BCE. During the Younger Dryas [glaciation] period of cold and drought [sic, climate change], permanent habitation of any one location was impossible. However, the Ein es-Sultan spring at what would become Jericho was a popular camping ground for Natufian hunter-gatherer groups, who left a scattering of crescent-shaped microlith tools behind them. Around 9600 BCE, the droughts and cold of the Younger Dryas stadial had come to an end, making it possible for Natufian groups to extend the duration of their stay, eventually leading to year-round habitation and permanent settlement.

Wikipedia (article link) - The Neolithic or New Stone Age (from Greek νέος néos 'new' and λίθος líthos 'stone') is an archaeological period, the final division of the Stone Age in Europe, Asia and Africa. It saw the Neolithic Revolution, a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. This "Neolithic package" included the introduction of farming, domestication of animals, and change from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to one of settlement. The term 'Neolithic' was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system.
The Neolithic began about 12,000 years ago when farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, and later in other parts of the world. It lasted [until 4500 BC] in the Near East until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic (Copper Age) from about 6,500 years ago (sic, 4500 BC), marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age.
In other places, the Neolithic followed the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) and then lasted until later. In Ancient Egypt, the Neolithic lasted until the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BC. In China, it lasted until circa 2000 BC with the rise of the pre-Shang Erlitou culture, and in Scandinavia, the Neolithic lasted until about 2000 BC.

Part III - Exploring Human Evolution
BEFORE the Neolithic Era

When approaching the bible I was taught to never ask questions about dinosaurs or to look beyond the earliest Neolithic Ages before the Early Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations. This mindset stay in me for most of my life as I explored scientific discoveries (I have a math and science background), literature, history, economics, and so forth, while raising a family, running a very small single-owner business, holding multiple lay ministries, and being active in several sports year round over decades.
When becoming an "empty nester" (sic, no kids living with us) and later retiring early at 53, I found myself motivated to write poetry and then later, to develop a new theology due to my poetry (I found my Westernized philosophic foundations out of date and creaky). I began writing poetry in 2009 and theology about 3 years later in 2011. To help me I taught myself to use Google blogger and established two sites, one for poetry and one for theology.
My motivation was to share all which I had been taught to overlook and never ask about. But then again, perhaps this was also my perceived boundaries. Which later proved true as my Christian friends did not wish to speak about my new interests and eschewed anything pertaining to social justice, the environment (I spent 15 active retirement years in quasi-political ecological reform in my area), women's equality, multi-ethnic pluralism, intersectional theology, minority rights, or newer bible perspectives and theologies than their own traditional backgrounds. So, I found myself with very few, if any supporters, encouragers, and curious fellowships except those I read on the Internet.
But by utilizing the forbidden activity of "doubt and uncertainty" and by following the Holy Spirit I now have been wandering about for these 12 years beyond my heavily-defined evangelical borders. Personally, I am far less burdened by having undertaken this difficult journey away from my religious ancestry. The articles I post here I hope will be a helpful directional guides to any forward movements amongst today's church which might be positive, curious, and loving in all directional activities.

- R.E. Slater


All the earlier neolithic civilizations from 12,000 BC onwards had a lot going on in them way, way, way before Israel came onto the scene. And so, I like to say that the narratives and oral histories in Genesis roughly began around in its quasi-Babylonian/Sumerian beliefs roughly 2400 BC and that by 750 BC, 1700 years later, a lot of ancient cultural history had transpired - and was mostly lost - through the death of civilizations and the mere passage of time.

So when I began asking the question awhile back "When did humanity become spiritually cognizant? Or materially aware of its environment? Or began forming its rites, rituals, survival practices, etc?... it would be misleading to narrowly focus on Hebraic history when asking these questions.... Or, to pre-form our religious answers and beliefs strictly from the biblical page. The bible's Hebraic cultural history is narrowed to its own cultural beliefs and experiences and doesn't even begin to touch on the prehistory eons before it.


To answer these existential questions we've got to go back a very long time to when humanity began in its most rudimentary evolutionary form. Some will say modern humanity came about LONG AFTER our near-evolutionary-relatives, the Neanderthals and Denisovians roamed the pre-historical earth (600,000 to 300,000 BC). Others will say our beliefs and attitudinal character came AFTER Homo Erectus (1,000,000 to 150,000 BC). Others, after Homo Habilis (2,350,000 to 1,500,000 BC). Which is mostly likely true as our species line has interbred with a number of other extant hominin species since homo habilis.
But it is also true our bipedal selves slipped away from the later development of chimpanzees (which diverged after us around 6mya to become it's own group around 4mya) to our own earliest relative around 4mya when i) Australopithecus Afarensis arrived. These pre-hominins were more walking apes then ii) "walking, but less furry," homo habilis who were basically walking non-apes.

Hence, from 6mya to 4mya (million years ago) "hominins" were not around. Instead, our furry predecessors were as found in our very distant Australopithecus ancestors.


So, when asking questions of spirituality, or the feeling of God's presence in good or bad times (fear of storm, wind, and wave), or of survival itself, it is simply easier to say these human-like evolving beings were infinitely inbred with feelings of divinity etc. That this was also a  latent quality in our ape ancestors 50,000,000mya and, by extension, throughout the animal kingdom itself.... Which takes us all the way back to the dinosaurs 500mya to 300mya, and to the Cambrian era itself 550mya when "live" exploded into a newly oxygenated earth and away from its methane gas self.

Thus and thus, one might speculate yet another additional 500mya before the Cambrian era back to 1 billion BC, as the hot, unlivable earth cooled under volcanic magma flows and meteoric collisions that life's divine percolation bubbled with an affinity, affection, or yearning for God. In fact, a process theologian will say that when God came upon the matter of the cosmos that even then God imbued God's Self, or Image, into the very firmament of creation. An evolving, regenerating creation which is ever held in the Image of God.

That somehow, somewhere, when God created the heavens and the earth all was created in God's image. I have spoken to this biblical teaching many times as recently as last week. So to ask where consciousness, sentience, good and evil, come from isn't so easily pinned upon humanity. We are but a very, very small part of a vast living cosmos wherein all the anthropologically divine attributes we claim as our own are but smaller resident forms found within all previous living species.

That is, we are not unique to creation but are an evidentiary outgrowth of creation's living, organic (and inorganic) being-ness. We are what we claim we are because we were birthed from the same stuff as the cosmos. Which differs from traditional church dogma teaching the opposite as it's theology is compartmented (or isolated) by its theistic understandings (sic, Westernized Theology). My self, along with many other process theologians, teach that humanity is but in a long line of consequentially evolving material forms all bearing an inner essence of divinity itself.

Process Panentheism (not pantheism) vs. Tradition Theism

Moreover, the sin nature is not our heritage but God is. And that sin is part of the free agency which reigns in us even as God is a free, and evolving Deity to creation's every evolving forms, needs, and etc. Which I rather like, knowing that creation, and us, bear God's Image in us as our primary interior psychic selves. And that the issue of good and evil (theodicy) arises because of the "free" agency we bear and not as our primary heritage.

Remember, God created from God's Self, from God's Imago Dei. And nothing was formed which wasn't formed by God. So its natural to think that within creation's very DNA God has implanted within it - and us - urges towards creativity, originality, relationality, experiential urges, a kind of panpsychicism which speaks to our sentient / spiritual urges, forms of cooperative engagement, and feelings to redeem and grow all that is good around us.

Conversely, the urges to not love and not be redeeming is due our refusal to become whom we are. Thus God's Incarnation, Atonement, and Redemption through Jesus, the Mid-Point of Salvation from the Birth to the Death of the Old Creation unto the New Creation. We are born to love and redeem. Through Jesus we can be just that. So the question, why do Christians NOT become who they should become? My feeling is that we do not see God's greater plan and are using today's misguided evangelical teachings to escape hell rather than to help others escape the hells they are living in.

Some say miracles are all around us. This is true and undeniable. But others wisely say, "Be the miracle to those needing miracles." This is all the difference in a Christian faith utilizing the miracles it has been given to it by the Spirit of God. - re slater

R.E. Slater
September 26, 2023

Ps... I purposely avoided the word "GOD made" as the preferred word used by the church. Rather I use the word "GOD formed". In one of my more recent posted articles I explain why. From a process scientific outlook, there has to be something from which God formed creation. God cannot form something from nothing. That is, something cannot come from nothing, given the kind of universe we live in. To this point, I have many articles on this subject. Simply look them up on the site here. 

chart link

* * * * * * *

Human Evolution: A Timeline of Early 
Hominids [Infographic]

Updated on September 26, 2023

“For about 4 million years, human evolution has been a long, long
process. From the early hominids to modern humans, we are in the
process of evolving at this very moment.”

Mammals existed during the era of dinosaurs. But they kept a low profile and remained small and fury like a hamster.

After the extinction of the dinosaurs, this marked the Age of Mammals. Because dinosaurs went extinct, mammals emerged as the largest land animals at this time.

Hominids were the early proto-humans. They were known for sharpening objects with silicon rocks. They began to master the use of their hands and fingers.

Let’s explore these early hominids (proto-humans), each species, and where they evolved geographically.


Australopithecus Afarensis was the earliest form of hominids, which archaeologists dug up fossils in the Afar Triangle of Africa, hence the name “Afarensis”.

Australopithecus Afarensis
  • Australopithecus afarensis is an extinct hominin species that lived approximately 3.9 to 2.9 million years ago during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene epochs.
  • They are believed to be among the earliest hominins, with a mixture of ape-like and human-like features.
  • The most famous individual of this species is “Lucy,” a nearly complete skeleton discovered in Ethiopia in 1974.
  • Australopithecus afarensis had a small brain relative to modern humans, indicating limited cognitive abilities.
  • They were bipedal, walking on two legs, which is a significant adaptation in hominin evolution.
  • The species likely lived in wooded environments and had a diverse diet, including both plant and animal-based foods.
  • Australopithecus afarensis individuals were relatively small in stature, with males and females exhibiting sexual dimorphism in body size.
  • Fossil evidence suggests they used tools, but their tool-making capabilities were limited compared to later hominin species.


Australopithecus Africanus is the first of the early ape species classified as hominids.

Australopithecus Africanus
  • Australopithecus africanus is an extinct hominin species that lived between 3.5 and 2.4 million years ago in Southern Africa during the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs.
  • It is known for being one of the first hominins to be discovered and described from Africa.
  • Australopithecus africanus had a combination of ape-like and human-like features, such as a small brain size relative to modern humans and a bipedal upright posture.
  • These hominins likely lived in woodlands and grasslands, which influenced their diet, consisting of both plant and animal foods.
  • Although they were not advanced tool users, they may have used simple tools, such as rocks and sticks, for various purposes.
  • Australopithecus africanus individuals had a facial structure that resembled apes more closely than modern humans, with a projecting face and pronounced brow ridges.


About 2.35 – 1.5 million years ago, Homo Habilis had larger brains which helped their survival.

Homo Habilis
  • Homo habilis, which means “handy man,” is an extinct species of early humans that lived approximately 2.4 to 1.4 million years ago during the early Pleistocene epoch.
  • They were among the first members of the Homo genus and are considered one of our direct ancestors.
  • Homo habilis exhibited significant advancements compared to earlier hominins, including the use of tools, which is reflected in their nickname.
  • The Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania is a significant archaeological site where many Homo habilis fossils and stone tools have been discovered.
  • Their brain size was larger than that of earlier hominins but still smaller than modern humans, suggesting some cognitive development.
  • Homo habilis had a more upright posture and a bipedal gait, allowing them to walk on two legs efficiently.
  • Their diet likely consisted of a variety of foods, including plant materials and scavenged or hunted animals.
  • The species played a crucial role in the transition from australopithecines to more advanced Homo species like Homo erectus.
  • While they primarily used simple stone tools, their ability to fashion and use tools marked a significant milestone in human evolution.


Homo Rudolfensis is an extinct hominin species that lived during the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs, around 2.4 million years ago.

Homo Rudolfensis
  • This species is known from fossil remains discovered near Lake Turkana in Kenya, specifically at Koobi Fora.
  • The exact classification of Homo Rudolfensis is debated, and some researchers consider it a distinct species, while others propose it may be a variation of Homo habilis.
  • Fossil evidence of Homo Rudolfensis includes a relatively large and rounded braincase, indicating a larger brain size compared to earlier hominins.
  • They exhibited a more human-like facial structure and dental characteristics, but the overall body size and limb proportions were still primitive.
  • Homo Rudolfensis is associated with the use of simple stone tools, suggesting some level of toolmaking and tool use.


Homo Gautengensis is a proposed hominin species that is not widely accepted by the scientific community.

Homo Gautengensis
  • It is hypothesized Homo Gautengensis to have lived around 2 million years ago in South Africa.
  • Fossil evidence for this species is sparse and contentious, making it difficult to establish its place in human evolutionary history.
  • Some researchers suggest that Homo Gautengensis may represent a regional variation or a subgroup within the broader category of early Homo.
  • Like other early Homo species, it likely had a relatively small brain size compared to modern humans but exhibited some adaptations associated with bipedalism.
  • Homo Gautengensis had big teeth for chewing plants, consumed more vegetables, and likely had smaller brains.
  • They also may have used fire and stone tools.


Homo Ergaster is an extinct hominin species that lived approximately 1.6 to 1.3 million years ago during the early Pleistocene epoch.

Homo Ergaster
  • The nickname for Homo Ergaster is “Workingman” because they built more sophisticated stone tools (archaeologists often discovered hand-axes and cleavers near skeletons found).
  • Fossil evidence for Homo Ergaster is primarily associated with sites in Africa, such as Koobi Fora in Kenya and Dmanisi in Georgia.
  • They are considered one of the early members of the Homo genus and represent an important transitional species between earlier hominins like Homo habilis and later ones like Homo erectus.
  • Homo Ergaster is known for its more modern and human-like characteristics, including a relatively larger brain size and a more developed body structure for endurance running.
  • They exhibited a pronounced reduction in facial prognathism (forward projection of the face) compared to earlier hominins.
  • Homo Ergaster is associated with the Acheulean stone tool industry, characterized by the creation of bifacial handaxes and cleavers.
  • Their hunting and scavenging abilities, along with the use of fire, likely played a crucial role in their survival and expansion.


Homo Erectus lived approximately 1.3 million to 0.7 years ago and was found along the southern coast of Asia.

Homo Erectus
  • They are considered one of the first hominin species to have expanded out of Africa and colonized different parts of the world.
  • Fossil evidence for Homo Erectus has been found in various locations, including Africa, Asia, and Indonesia.
  • Homo Erectus is characterized by a more modern and human-like anatomy compared to earlier hominins. They had a larger brain size because they were believed to eat more meat.
  • They are believed to have been the first hominin species to use fire deliberately, which had significant implications for cooking, warmth, and protection.
  • Homo Erectus is considered a crucial transitional species in human evolution, bridging the gap between earlier hominins and anatomically modern humans.
  • Their migration out of Africa is a significant milestone in human prehistory, leading to the colonization of different regions and adaptation to diverse environments.


Homo Erectus Pekinesis

Homo Erectus Pekinesis existed 1.25 – 0.3 million years ago and their fossils were mostly found near Beijing (Peking).

  • Homo Erectus Pekinensis is a subspecies of Homo erectus and is best known for the discovery of fossils in Zhoukoudian (Choukoutien), near Beijing, China.
  • Fossils of Peking Man were discovered in the 1920s and 1930s and played a significant role in our understanding of human evolution.
  • They are associated with the use of tools and evidence of fire use, suggesting advanced cognitive and cultural abilities.
  • They are known as “Peking Man” because these fossils were mostly found near Beijing (Peking).
  • These extinct hominids were known to have heavy brow ridges and the use of stone tools.
  • The study of Peking Man contributed to our understanding of hominin dispersal and adaptation to different environments, particularly in East Asia.


Homo Antecessor is recognized as “Human Pioneer” due to the belief they belonged to the first human population in Europe.

Homo Antecessor
  • Homo Antecessor is an extinct hominin species that lived during the Lower Pleistocene epoch, approximately 1.2 million to 650,000 years ago.
  • Fossil evidence for Homo Antecessor was discovered at the Gran Dolina site in Atapuerca, Spain, and at other locations in Europe.
  • The name “antecessor” means “pioneer” or “ancestor” in Latin, reflecting its position as a possible common ancestor to both Neanderthals and modern humans.
  • This species is characterized by a combination of primitive and more advanced features. It had a relatively small brain size but showed evidence of tool use and possibly meat consumption.
  • The discovery of cut marks on animal bones at the Atapuerca site suggests that Homo Antecessor was involved in butchery and hunting activities.
  • Some researchers suggest that Homo Antecessor may have been one of the first hominins to inhabit Europe, making it an important part of the continent’s prehistory.


About 1.0 – 0.15 million years ago, scientists discovered this type of hominid in Indonesia on the island of Java.

Homo Erectus Soloensis
  • Homo Erectus Soloensis is a subspecies of Homo Erectus known from fossil remains found in the Solo River region of Java, Indonesia.
  • These fossils were discovered in the 1930s and are sometimes referred to as “Solo Man” or “Ngandong Man” after the nearby Ngandong village.
  • Homo erectus soloensis is estimated to have lived around 150,000 to 1,000,000 years ago during the Middle and Late Pleistocene.
  • The fossils include skullcaps, teeth, and other skeletal elements, providing insights into the anatomy of this subspecies.
  • Like other Homo erectus populations, Homo erectus soloensis is characterized by a relatively large brain size compared to earlier hominins.
  • They are associated with the use of Acheulean stone tools, which are more advanced than the tools used by earlier hominins.
  • Evidence of fire use has also been found at some sites, suggesting an ability to control and control fire.


About 0.7-0.4 million years ago, Homo Heidelbergensis existed in both Africa and Europe. But archaeologists found fossils of Homo Heidelbergensis near Heidelberg Germany (hence the name).

Homo Heidelber-Gensis
  • Homo Heidelbergensis is an extinct hominin species that lived during the Middle Pleistocene period, approximately 700,000 to 400,000 years ago.
  • Fossil evidence for Homo heidelbergensis has been found at various sites across Africa, Europe, and possibly Asia, indicating a wide geographic distribution.
  • This species exhibits a mix of primitive and more advanced anatomical features. They had a larger brain size compared to earlier hominins, suggesting increased cognitive abilities.
  • Homo Heidelbergensis is associated with the development of more sophisticated stone tools, including handaxes and cleavers, which are characteristic of the Acheulean industry.
  • Some researchers believe they are most notable for possibly burying their dead.
  • They were likely skilled hunters and gatherers, capable of using fire and building simple shelters.
  • The species demonstrates adaptations to various environments, from temperate regions in Europe to more tropical climates in Africa.12. Homo Helmei


There is uncertainty about Homo Helmei compared to other hominin species. About 0.4 – 0.2 million years ago, Homo Helmei existed only for a short period of time.

Homo Helmei
  • Homo Helmei is theorized to have displayed a unique combination of physical traits, blending features from different known hominin species.
  • Although they are a speculative hominin species, researchers propose they are known for their out-of-Africa movement and that their brain volume is slightly larger than modern humans.
  • Research is still being developed to improve our understanding of Homo Helmei.


Homo Neanderthalensis, or Neanderthals, is an extinct species of hominins closely related to modern humans (Homo sapiens).

Homo Neander-thalensis
  • Neanderthals lived in Eurasia and Africa from approximately 500,000 to 25,000 years ago.
  • They had a robust build with stocky bodies, adapted for cold climates.
  • Prominent features included a large brow ridge, strong jaw, and a wide nose.
  • Evidence suggests they had the ability to speak and may have used complex language.
  • Neanderthals were skilled hunters and gatherers, using tools such as spears and handaxes.
  • They lived in small, close-knit groups and had social structures.
  • Evidence of burial practices suggests a degree of ritual and symbolic behavior.
  • Studies have shown that some modern humans of non-African descent carry small percentages of Neanderthal DNA, indicating limited interbreeding between the two species.


About 160-40 thousand years ago, the “doubly wise man” was the recent form of modern humans “homo sapiens sapiens”.

Homo Sapiens
  • Homo sapiens is the only surviving species in the Homo genus and the only extant hominin species.
  • Homo sapiens were known for their artistic talents in cave paintings and clay work.
  • They made hooks and spears to catch fish and invented the spear thrower. Thus, it made them better hunters because they could hunt from a distance.
  • They have a high forehead, less prominent brow ridges, a rounded skull, and a vertical face. Modern humans have a complex vocal apparatus that allows for advanced language and communication.
  • Homo sapiens coexisted with other hominin species, including Neanderthals and Denisovans, for some time.

Homo sapiens is the only surviving hominin species, and their success is attributed to their unique combination of cognitive abilities, culture, and adaptability, which allowed them to thrive and become the dominant species on Earth.

A Timeline of Human Evolution

Since about 4 million years ago, humans have evolved from early hominids to modern humans. Here are 14 species examples from human evolution now extinct.

Apes remained in trees as their primary food source. Eventually, grass began to spread in places like the African Savannah. Because there were fewer trees, this forced apes to walk to new food sources.

With their heads above the grass to see predators, apes evolved by walking on two legs. It also helped to have their hands available when they were traveling. So here we are at this point in human evolution.

Do you have any general questions about the theory of evolution? Please send us your comments and questions below.